September 16, 2014

The Effects Of Substance Abuse Among Teenagers

Teenagers are passing through the phase of life in which they try and experiment with different things, activities and substances. These experiments, unfortunately, lead towards substance or drug abuse and addiction. This lead towards array of problems in teenagers which include educational difficulties, problems related to physical and mental health, poor relationships with family and peers, and involvement in illegal activities which are against the legal system. This also in turn place negative effects on the family, community and on the society as a whole.
Statistics verify that the problem of substance abuse is increasing day by day among the teenagers. In addition to cocaine and other ecstasy drugs, which are used by teenagers to seek pleasure, the other most abused drugs are marijuana (31.5%), Vicodin (9.7%), amphetamines (8.1%), cough medicine (6.9%), sedatives & tranquilizers (6.6% each) ( Staff, 2009). If effective and proper treatment is not provided, it can lead towards serious consequences in young age and they move well into adulthood as well.
Effects of Drug abuse on teenagers
The drug abuse at the age of teen can cause serious health and negative consequences. Young people who get addicted to drugs at teenage are more likely to struggle with the problem of addiction and relapse in later ages. In severe cases, it can cause permanent and irreversible damage to the brain.
The effects of the substance abuse on teenagers are discussed below;
·         Effects on education: Substance abuse among teenagers significantly place negative effects on the academics of teenagers. It became a cause of declining grades, absenteeism from school and extra circular activities and increased rate of school drop outs. According to the research findings of Bureau of Justice Statistics (1992) the substance abuse cases cognitive and behavioral problems among youth and these problems interferes with their academic performance and also become a cause of problem in learning for their other classmates.
·         Effects on physical health: The health related problems and consequences of substance abuse among teenagers include injuries, accidents, physical impairments and disabilities and possible consequences of drug over doses. Teenagers who are involved in alcohol and other substance abuse are increasingly more vulnerable to commit suicide, homicide, illnesses and accidents. A report of The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) on the hospitals throughout U.S. shows that the visits of the youth in emergency department which were related to the substance abuse of marijuana/hashish between the ages of 12 to 17 increased to 50 % during the years 1993 and 1994 (McCaig, 1995). In addition to this, many of the teenagers after taking drugs involves in unsafe sexual activities. This places them at greater risk of contracting HIV/AIDS or other such sex related diseases.
Though there has been a decline in the alcohol related fatalities among teenagers in the past few years, but still there are some percentage of young people are overrepresented. According to the report of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (1997) almost 2000 young people between the ages of 15 to 20 were killed in 1995 due to alcohol related car accidents.
·         Effects on mental health: Substance abuse places adverse effects on the mental health of teenagers. It can cause problems of depression, developmental problems, apathy, with drawl from reality and other types of psycho social functioning problems. The teenagers who are involved in substance abuse are more vulnerable to other mental disorders and personality problems such as personality disorders, conduct disorders, depression, suicidal ideation and committing suicidal attempts. Bureau of Justice Statistics (1992) shows that use of Marijuana significantly interferes with the short-term memory, learning and psychomotor skills among the teenagers. It also effects motivation, psycho sexual and emotional development of teenagers.
·         Problems in peer relationship: The teenagers who substance abuse is often isolated and left out by their peers. Teenagers, who take up alcohol and other drugs, isolate themselves from their peer group and other classmates. They disengage themselves from school, often bunk school. They cut themselves from the activities of the community. They actually deprive the community and the society of the positive role which they might have played otherwise.
·         Effect on family relationship: Beside personal loses, the teenagers who take drugs also suffer crisis in their family life. In severe circumstances, it may lead towards dysfunction of the family unit. Dug and substance abuse adversely effects the siblings and parents relationship with the teenage abuser (Nowinski,1990). It can even drain the family emotionally, psychologically and financially.
·         Social and economic effects: The substance abuse hold high social and economic costs. The teenager who suffer drug addiction and their families suffer highly negative financial crisis and distress, increase in the burden on the family due to the drug abuser who is not able to become self- supporting and increased demand for the medical and other treatments for the drug abuser (Gropper,1985).

·         Delinquency: There exists a very strong positive correlation between the substance abuse and delinquency. Teenagers who abuse drugs are most likely to involve in illegal activities. It often bring the problems in school and family life, association with negative and bad peer group, a lack of social control and physical or social abuse (Hawkins et al., 1987; Wilson and Howell, 1993). Substance abuse among teenagers leads towards the formation of gangs, drug trafficking, prostitution and other illegal activities. A study conducted National Parents' Resource Institute for Drug Education (PRIDE)(1997) showed a strong high and positive relation between the crimes committed by young adolescents and their use of drugs and other related substances. Teenagers who take drugs involve more frequently in fighting, stealing and other types of delinquent behaviors.

Substance or drug abuse has serious negative consequences among teenagers. It affects the overall physical, psychological and mental health of the young people. In addition it also place significant negative effects on the social, economic, family and community life of the teenager. It is a cause of serious accidents, injuries and death among teenagers. It is also one of the most significant causes of delinquency among teenagers. Therefore, it needs to be monitored and controlled to save the teenagers from life long impairments.

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September 9, 2014

Marketing Audit Report

Marketing Audit Report
Executive Summary
In the earlier report related to marketing auditing, some of the fundamental aspects of marketing that were highlighted included an environmental scan of the company, which for that matter was Starbucks. The environmental scan comprised of demographic segments, targets population, culture and values that are integral to the organization. These also included the psychographics of the target population that Starbucks caters and the way through which it intends to influence and expand its market share.
 In addition to this some of the other key areas of marketing that were illuminated during the course of the discussion included the SWOT and PESTEL analysis of the organization. With the help and conduction of these analyses we were able to gain a thorough idea about the ways in which the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats play a collective role in the development of the organization, and through what ways is Starbucks collectively able to manage all these areas in an effective manner. PESTEL analysis provided an overview of the ways through which mainly internal as well as external factors such as political, technological, economic as well as legal steps can influence the ways a business functions in a certain economic environment from the perspective of Starbucks. Also, other areas such as customer analysis, stakeholder analysis, competitor analysis and TOWS analysis were also properly conducted and analyzed from the viewpoint of Starbucks in the earlier discussion. However, once done with all the important aspects deal earlier it is now important to move into greater tiers of research related to marketing and the way it applies to the case of Starbucks.
During the course of this discussion our key aim and focus would be related to other subsequent and significant aspects that are related to the science of marketing. This will focus largely on the development of a marketing plan that will first and foremost outline the marketing objectives of the plan. Once aims and objective are clearly chalked out, it is important that the marketing mix of Starbucks is clearly understood and analyzed. This will be dealt under the headings of 4 Ps which are price, product, promotion and place. In addition to this some of the other important aspects that will also feature our research will also comprise of marketing tactics, timeline and contingencies.  
Marketing Objectives
While designing marketing objectives of our plan and strategy it is important that we make sure that the aims and objectives being lined-up are realistic in nature, logically outlined and in line with the resources and labor that is within the affordable capacities of the organization. in line of all these aspects some of the important objectives that have been outlined in the case of Starbucks are listed as follows:
·         Since the brand name and portfolio is already strong it is important Starbucks this year tends to look towards stabilizing and establishing a greater presence on a global scale.
·         Focus more towards strategies that can bring costs under control, for organization as well as consumers. At the same time it is important to ensure that customers are provided a unique and memorable experience to rejoice.
·         Another key objective is that of working in collaboration with pace with licensed store and explores frontiers in emerging markets.
·         In addition to this it is also important for Starbucks to conform to its mission statement of introducing environment friendly policies and strongly adhere to their recycling of waste policy.
·         Also make sure that the sales volume from each store reaches to the point of $20,000
Industry dynamics
Marketing objectives that have been listed above can only become easily achievable once we find that the situation of the industry is in accordance with our requirements. This can be manifested from the fact that in recent times coffee industry in US and other places of the world has expanded immensely. Starbucks with its global penetration in international retail coffee market has provided a new dimension to the concept and perception that people earlier had about coffee.
With its different taste and diversity of flavors that it offers Starbucks has quickly reached the zenith of providing valuable coffee experience to its customers. In addition to this the stable position of Starbucks has further been stabilized with the different and rather unconventional innovations that it has introduced.  
For instance it was among the first coffee retailers to offer wi-fi services and connection to its customers so that they could easily share their experience of having coffee at Starbucks with their friends and relatives. Hence, they were able to capitalize upon the word of mouth marketing.
Another major reason that helped Starbucks boost its industry leverage was on the basis of the fact that unlike other popular food industries like McDonalds, the company has only been offering its products and services in markets that are licensed and superstores. And it is mainly through these stores that the company generates revenues for itself. Major share of revenue incoming is from whole bean coffees that accounts for 76%, followed by 18% by equipment and the remaining minute share of 3% by sales of other beverages. So, with the help of these facts and figures we are able to get a clear view about the ways in which industry and its dynamics favor the ways through which Starbucks can easily gain access into other global markets since it has a clean record and par excellence standards when it comes to credibility.
Marketing Mix of Starbucks
The USP of Starbucks has always been their coffee varieties and flavors. Coffee range offered by the organization includes espresso and drip brewed coffee including whole bean coffees. Other than this in order to explore greater avenues of customer interest and liking Starbucks also offers a variety of beverages and cold drinks to its customers. The menu also includes sandwiches, Panini, pastries and salads. In addition to this, mugs, tumblers and even CDs are sold at the various outlets of Starbucks.
It is also important to mention here that all products that are present within any outlet of Starbucks are branded in nature. Another area where Starbucks has provided immense attention in refining the image of its product is the way through which it was presented. This has played a pivotal role in the re-positioning of the product and garnered some positive comments from customers who visited Starbucks. The process of redefining product image has mainly taken place through enhancing the ambiance of the store with the ultimate goal and single line agenda of making customers want to linger for the product that Starbucks offers them. In addition to this the environment that has been created also allows customers to experience a sense of social feeling and appeal (Kettle, 2010)
 This is catered with the help of inculcating a sense of community and making Starbucks synonymous with this communal feeling as a place where people can easily come together, communicate with each other and share their thoughts. The feeling of community building and strengthening has further been enhanced with the incorporation of Wi-Fi and internet availability services in all their outlets. This has allowed customers with the leverage of not only communicating with people physically present with them but include all those whom they want to share the experience of having coffee at Starbucks.
Hence, the very concept of ambiance rebuilding and positioning has indeed an extremely important role in providing the product of Starbucks a completely new and refined image. Similarly, changes have also taken place as far as the physical maintenance of their products is concerned. Smoking is banned in all outlets of Starbucks; as a matter of fact customers are not even allowed to wear perfumes as they can contaminate the food and other products that are being offered.
In Starbucks the pricing strategy followed is regulated according to customers’ response. Starbucks sets prices of its products based on a simple formula and agenda. This is based on providing customers high quality at a moderate cost. When people see that they are getting a good deal of their money, they will definitely make up their minds to pay for something that is charged extra. The pricing strategy of Starbucks has also a lot to do with the way the brand positions itself and at the same time provides the brand with the leverage to charge premium prices of the products that it offers (Slideshare, 2011)
Thus, when Starbucks introduces a new coffee flavor or product, customers happily pay more for the newly launched product since they know that the quality that they will be provided with at Starbucks will not be available anywhere among its competitors. Therefore it can be understood and said that customers today take Starbucks as the name synonymous with good quality coffee brand. In addition to the quality coffee that is being sold Starbucks also provides various denominations and ranges to customers in coffee from which they can use based on their own choice. All they need to have are $3 to $4 in their pocket to enjoy a coffee of Starbucks.
Established back in 2007 in a time span of more than a decade Starbucks has been able to take the coffee market of US, Canada and UK by storm. It has become one of the most trusted coffee brands of the world that offers good quality at an extremely affordable and economic rate. Apart from the United States it operates in more than 50 countries in almost all continents of the world. It is only I Africa where induction and establishment of Starbucks is still in embryonic stages (Larson, 2008).  
Moreover, it is important to mention here that in all the different countries where Starbucks operates it has successfully been able to design and mold itself with the coffee consuming tastes of people. It is precisely the reason why Starbucks has been able to gain immense success as a brand in almost all markets where it operates or has been operating for a long time. With numerous locations and convenient accessibility it has become very easy for customers to buy products of Starbucks no matter where they are. However, there are certain flavors and products that are season specific, for instance the newly launched Frappuccino flavors that can only be available in certain seasons. Furthermore, it is also important to state here that even sometimes high demand of certain flavors can also create a dearth of certain flavors which usually happens upon the launching of new flavors or products.
It is a generally acknowledged fact that Starbucks does not spend much of its expenditure on advertising. The company has always relied overwhelmingly on word of mouth marketing which has always played a profound role in the development and progress of the overall brand. However, with the passage of time Starbucks has also realized that in order to effectively compete with other brands, and at the same time maintain an upper hand in customers’ mind it is important that it should provide some serious attention towards steps that encourage massive investment and surge in advertisement budget.
However, even before an easy method that Starbucks can easily apply in its situation is by creating internal advertisements within its own retail stores. Advertising tools such as posters, flyers, new product signage and other associated tools can easily be made use within the premises of a particular outlet and can be used as an effective means of advertising about new products (Larson, 2008).
Nonetheless, advertising done through these means will only be effective and fruitful to people who are coffee drinkers and regularly visit Starbucks for that. But, how will it reach to people who are non-coffee drinkers? There needs to be a way through which they can be reached and catered. For the fulfillment of that purpose it is important that some traditional and modern methods of advertisement are also highlighted. This can be in the form of either advertising their new products, services and schemes on TV Spot or web marketing them. Historically, Starbucks has never engaged in doing any TV Spots for any of its products or services before and plus the cost of doing that is exceptionally high in comparison to web marketing which is easily affordable and currently in the favorite medium of the target market and audience that Starbucks has largely catered for over a long period of time.
TV advertisements must also be done, but for the time being they should be placed at second priority for Starbucks as compared to other means like web marketing or on social media which will be very effectively in the preliminary stages of any product or service launched by the brand.
Marketing tactics and timeline
As mentioned in earlier sections of our discussion that in order to have a stable and well established global presence the most convenient and auspicious form of marketing that can be applied by Starbucks will be in the form of web marketing. There are some apparent reasons that actually lead to this choice. First and foremost being that by choosing web as the dominant and top prioritized medium of advertising they can easily reach a mass audience which might be technically possible through other traditional media like advertising in newspaper or television. In addition to this another integral part of marketing tactics will also comprise of in-house marketing or word of mouth marketing that Starbucks has always been overwhelmingly reliant upon.
Outlets of Starbucks that are present in over 50 other countries will act as the advertising agencies for the organization to introduce the new products and services and campaigns that the company intends to launch. Also, as soon as a new product is launched or unveiled it will be immediately updated on the Facebook, Twitter and other social networking websites so that customers of Starbucks are immediately made aware of the innovations that are taking place in their favorite brand.
 An estimated cost or projected cost on this form of advertising will range from $2000-$4000 something which will definitely not be burdensome for a brand like Starbucks especially when it’s providing him with the new lifeline and a new image for its loyal customers. However, it is important to mention here that the timeline allocated for the entire web marketing session must be for the whole year. For the first six months web marketing campaigns must be observed closely as during that time period they will require constant input of finances. In the next six months results will start to show and definitely prove that the investment was worth making.
Marketing contingencies
In case of failure, it is important that a couple of backup plans need to be made. For instance if the marketing tactics proposed do not produce desired results, it is important to understand that people are either more aligned towards competing coffee brands than Starbucks or they simply do not think that the brand name is trustworthy. In such a situation it will be feasible to switch towards defensive mode.
Critical situations demand critical measures and in such a situation Starbucks needs to come up with strategies that can help build its image and reinstate its credibility. A very simple step that can initiate and propagate the process will be in the form of creating videos and posting them on YouTube that talk about and discuss the services being offered by Starbucks which others are not. With such contingency planning things will definitely change course towards optimism.
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Cloud Computing In Next Five Years

With the advent of the 21st century it has become extremely vital and significant for countries all over the world to realize and adapt themselves with the rampant changes that are taking place in the technological arena. This proves helpful to them in a number of ways.
Firstly, with the inheritance of such changes countries ensure that the contemporary technology that is being used all over the world influxes their mechanism and operation conducting methodologies to bring an improvement in it, and secondly with such changes they can also make sure that they create and pioneer novel employment opportunities for their people who have gained expertise and are proficient in the effective conduction of such technological tools.
With the passage of time as the technology expanded its influence and took the form of a commercially established, profit generating business venture it was witnessed that all major corporations of the world such as Microsoft and Apple jumped into this medium to introduce methods and innovatory products that provide a completely visage to the conventional business techniques that were being followed and this came in the form of a new technology which was introduced by the name of cloud computing (Sannella, 1994).
During the course of this discussion we would be looking at the different aspects of cloud computing and the databases that are related to it. The advantages that organizations today use this technology for and the associated pros and cons of the technology for, in addition to this the future of this technology will also be assessed and analyzed respectively.
What is cloud computing database?
Cloud computing is basically a process through which location independent computing is made possible. With the help of this different servers that provide resources and information are consolidated in the form of a cloud with the help of other associated vital devices along with the facility of electricity grid.
 In addition to this the National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST also provide a more objective definition of the world cloud in which they say that the world cloud is used in metaphoric sense which can be applied to the facilities and amenities that are provided to customers who are utilizing the facility of the internet as with the help of either of this technology different kinds and natures of network can be linked directly without the presence of any physical barriers (Mezak, 2006).
 Cloud computing can be termed as the most contemporary form of innovation in the medium of internet based computing. It is important to mention here that it is the technological foundation that has been provided by the internet which has led to the construction of the infrastructure upon which all these developments can be made.
With such facilities and opportunities standing right at their disposal it was not hard to believe that web pages that were once static in nature and on web began to add features that could prove and festoon their web material with the elements of interactivity. Such a kind of revolution was further catalyzed and facilitated by the hosted applications provided by e-mail medium of Hotmail.
The addition of all these features that made their configuration user-friendly led to the development of a new service which came to be known as Software as a service or SaaS when abbreviated.  As the accessibility and availability factors of cloud computing became an intrinsic component of private corporations, all of them spawned to provide their customers with the benefits that are related to the operations of cloud computing.
Another important feature that is worth discussing here is that irrespective of the nature whether the network of the customer is private or public data is always an integral part of it. Hence it is essential to believe that for the effective functioning and operation of cloud computing it is mandatory for it to be compatible with the database that allows the storage and circulation of different kinds of data which is being used (Michael, N/A).
The evolution of cloud database requirements
In the ever changing world of today even cloud database and their respective mechanisms are constantly evolving and in relation to that even the technologies that are related to this phenomenon are undergoing constant innovation. For consumer usage the database that is being used by cloud computing technology is being developed and evolved on web2.0 basis. With the unprecedented development taking place in the sector of social media user generated content which is made available by this technology is gaining access which is also coupled with the level of transnational business applications that are being utilized in this sector.
For the conduction of effective business application it is important that the cloud computing database must be compliant be with the ACID acronym which stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability. For having a better understanding it is also important to consider a couple of examples of cloud computing databases and the way they can be applied to businesses in contemporary methodology.
For instance if a certain database is used for the powering of a cosmetic based website, if the user googles it with a certain specific shade of lipstick he or she will immediately receive a long list of sites to visit to in order to prevent her from visiting from another website. If the website says that the preferred cosmetic is available in the form of inventory and completes the sale this would be a result of inconsistent data which has led to the blockade of the entire transaction. The example clearly manifests that due to the presence of inconsistent data and other factors that may be present how the absence of cloud computing databases can affect business and other related commercial operations. 
Services offered by Cloud Computing
Some of the key services offered by cloud computing have been mentioned and explained as follows:

  • Dynamic scalability: most of the applications that are used may experience spikes in their incoming traffic. Instead of over purchasing your own equipment, many cloud computing services allow the efficient and smooth level through which the spikes can be handled in the most cost-effective and pay-as-you-go model.
  • Another associated benefit related to cloud computing is that of simplified maintenance whereas databases and changes can periodically be upgraded with utmost convenience and simplicity.
  • With the help of cloud computing core developments and services can be utilized and applied in bringing a faster development in the technological infrastructure facilitating a rapid change in the development cycle and processes that are used in the entire process.
  • Last but not the least the entire process of cloud computing from its establishment to its promulgation on an organizational scale which includes network equipment and other miscellaneous costs. Since most of the services are shared it results in the reduction of costs from its installation to its usage. The program and technological venture of cloud computing is of particular importance to mid-sized and mediocre level application and similar category prototypes.

The need for assistance in consumption increases the adoption of cloud computing proliferates. Broker cloud services is a service that plays an intermediary role in cloud computing. It performs three main functions: aggregation, integration and customization. These functions are performed by the services providers, providers of services between businesses and new cloud computing specialists.

In 2011, the interests of users (and providers) computer to the concept of brokering cloud services has increased, and the market has seen an expansion of offerings in this area, as well as more widespread adoption of brokerage services cloud computing services.

Over the next three years, we expect that this trend is accelerating, with a wider range of providers and offers. The deployment of cloud services will require significant integration work, so many brokers in cloud services provide integration services and employ suites of business process management to cope with this complexity. Ongoing investments by distributors and providers of computer communication services for offers brokerage aggregation of cloud services help small and medium enterprises to obtain, exploit and maximize investments involving multiple cloud services.(Tavel, 2007)
Individuals, they belong to a department or business unit can easily consume cloud services without involving IT entity. Although considered a boon by many users, this approach poses difficulties in coordinating procurement, relationship management with suppliers, monitoring the consumption of services does not pose excessive risk of integration of disparate services, etc.. Operational units buy more software solutions as a service and require departments to respond afterwards.
To remedy this situation, IT departments must consider how they can position themselves as brokers of cloud services vis-à-vis the company, putting in place a procurement process that fits the adoption of cloud computing and encourages business units to contact them for advice and assistance. This will allow the computer entity to track the services that users buy the company and provide a degree of governance processes.(Buyya, 2011)
However, the computer entity must be very careful. If this process is simply to erect a barrier to access to cloud services, people once again will bypass the computer entity. The approach to brokerage services for enterprise cloud computing can be implemented by modifying existing tools and processes, such as internal portals and service catalogs. In addition, the software portal and operations management, as well as brokers external cloud services, will provide tools to facilitate the process.

Problems in Cloud Computing
One of the most crucial issues in which the model of cloud computing and its related functions have become a target of serious criticism is the ethical issue of privacy invasion which is greatly enhance due to its usage.
Advocates of privacy rights claim that since the technology of cloud computing provides companies complete and absolute control regarding the information that they need to track and supervise, their authority regarding the usage of this information needs to be questioned as they can use it lawfully or unlawfully according to their own will.
In addition to this news has already been circulating in countries like US that major telephone companies like AT&T and NSA have joined alliances to provide them with the entire record of phone calls that are made by people every second which has raised serious questions regarding the invasion of privacy by advocates of this issue (Brown, 2003).
Despite of the fact that the legal system of the country has taken some proactive steps to clam down the situation there are still some major companies like the Amazon who have deployed their infrastructure on global scale and thus provide their customers with the facility to select for certain availability zones and regions thus once again provoking the issue of privacy in the entire business.
A major criticism that has also been attracted in the very similar context is that by using such methods of applying and implementing services the goals that are set by the organization and those determined by the auditor may not be disclosed at all times and such cases may also vary from one organization to the other (Buyya, 2011).
A prominent issue regarding cloud computing is that of security implications. The relative security of cloud computing has always been a controversial issue which has also led to the lack of adoption of this technological method. This has mainly been contributed by the external management that secures overwhelming intervention in the entire process regarding the promulgation of cloud computing and its technology.
With the help of such management decisions a great incentive is provided to cloud computing service providers in building and maintaining a secure management service to the service provider. In conclusion it would be appropriate to say that the future of cloud computing databases and the way it has proliferated its technology over the global technological arena is extremely impressive.
The current state of Cloud Computing 
In the ever changing world of today even cloud database and their respective mechanisms are constantly evolving and in relation to that even the technologies that are related to this phenomenon are undergoing constant innovation. For consumer usage the database that is being used by cloud computing technology is being developed and evolved on web2.0 basis. With the unprecedented development taking place in the sector of social media user generated content which is made available by this technology is gaining access which is also coupled with the level of transnational business applications that are being utilized in this sector (Rochwerger, 2009).
For the conduction of effective business application it is important that the cloud computing database must be compliant be with the ACID acronym which stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability. For having a better understanding it is also important to consider a couple of examples of cloud computing databases and the way they can be applied to businesses in contemporary methodology (Plate, 2000).
For instance if a certain database is used for the powering of a cosmetic based website, if the user googles it with a certain specific shade of lipstick he or she will immediately receive a long list of sites to visit to in order to prevent her from visiting from another website. If the website says that the preferred cosmetic is available in the form of inventory and completes the sale this would be a result of inconsistent data which has led to the blockade of the entire transaction. The example clearly manifests that due to the presence of inconsistent data and other factors that may be present how the absence of cloud computing databases can affect business and other related commercial operations. 
Technology and services of cloud computing in upcoming years
The cloud computing technology even through has been extremely beneficial and advantageous for various purposes, however, when it comes to the future of their technology there are mixed opinions that prevail regarding the future of this technology and its subsequent application in mainstream Information Technology. In a survey that was conducted by IBM back in the year 2010 showed that cloud computing technology will dominate enterprises as it has emerged as the most in-demand platforms for software application development.
One of the reasons that will account for the forecasted rampant cloud computing technology in times to come is based on the increasing use of mobile phone applications and development that are taking place on iPhones, iPads and Androids. The new cloud computing resources allow users to develop online relations, share content and along with this also grow a worldwide network of peer groups to drive innovation.
It is also expected that mobile phone applications industry over the next couple of years will be able to acquire a position where it will be able to generate massive revenues estimated to be around $30 billion by the year 2013. The progress and economic development of this will also account for the concomitant growth of cloud computing also.
Another recent study that was recently conducted by the Sand Hill Group revealed that in years to come the only particular field that will create more jobs than the internet and will serve as a pivotal economic driver will be based on the use and utilization of applications made through cloud computing. In addition to this some of the significant findings that were made in the study included that the projected revenue growth of cloud computing companies will surpass $20 billion in the next five years (Schofield, 2008).
This growth which will take place over the next five years will further create half a million new jobs in the sector alone. The study also pointed out that business that will choose cloud computing as the investment ground today will be able to enjoy potential savings of over $625 billion in the next five years. This will provide them with the opportunity and incentive of expanding their revenues of income and explore greater avenues that can help and contribute towards their diversification (Forman, 2003).   
A major reason viewed by many for the anticipated development of cloud computing is its relation with mobile computing such as those involving smartphones and tablets. It is through the help of the platform provided by cloud computing that both areas and fields of expertise can emerge as the strongest segments of IT in the next five years. However, despite all optimistic expectations that are being associated with the future of cloud computing there is also a flip side to the entire argument.
According to this argument that has been put forward by the co-founder of Apple Steve Wozniak cloud computing will cause immense and innumerable problems in times to come. Steve thinks that with everything going to cloud the repercussions of such a step will be horrendous.
Even though Wozinak has not openly expressed his concerns about these horrendous repercussions, it can be assumed that he is particularly concerned about the monopoly of a single platform that will be used in the technology sector for providing support to all mobile applications irrespective of the browser or smartphone they use. This can pose a serious threat to the way services related to mobile applications will be used for future and without any existent competition the quality and standard of service provided will not be of the use that the user demands (Tavel, 2007).

Organizational Change Essay

As this is a broad and ambiguous concept, organizational change is difficult to define. It has several definitions. As such, the management literature of change has several facets representing a conceptual wealth in management. It is in fact, different kinds of changes related to different types of organizations. Indeed, Chandler (1962) listed different types of growth strategies in conjunction with different forms of organization. These strategies are determined by the allocations of resources, the determination of long-term and short-term goals and adoption choices of action (planning). The lack of a comprehensive definition of organizational change can be explained by the fact that in the same context, the change is not designed to same way in two different organizations. If it is not easy to agree on a definition of change, at least, a consensus was reached on the organizations’ instability. Indeed, all advocates of change argue that firms are never stable and they are in a situation of no change. As a living organism, it adapts or trying to adapt continuously to its environment. Devoid of this permanent mechanism, a organization cannot survive. The idea is that organizations must adjust according to the current changes. In this vein, some authors stress that change often results evolutionary forces or events on which the organization has no power in general (Herscovitch & Meyer, 2003). Thus, the change takes place when the organization strives to achieve a purpose which is necessary for its success, for example, improved operational performance.
There are different approaches of organizational change like neo-institutional approach, environmental approach, cultural configuration approach etc. The choice of these approaches can be explained by the fact that these approaches complement each other and can bypass the modernization movement as a whole (Armenakis & Harris, 2002). In other words, the modernization as strategic change involves the change of culture, structure, strategies, etc., and it is correlated with the environmental change. Moreover, the neo-institutional approach and that of ecology are both focus on the environmental pressure on the organization.
                                                         The operational framework
Since the 80s, the modernization of the public administration plays an important role in government policies in several countries. If consensus was made about the modernization of the public administration, the debate on implementation process is not yet closed. In Canada, the phenomenon of modernization was considered as means to address the failure of the management of public administration; but now the opinion has changed. The goal of modernization is to improve the performance of public administration companies.
The traditional view is that in public administration companies the control is not impaired at the outset, but it becomes in a cycle. In other words, it is not the government control which leads to better performance, but rather the modes associated with leadership and modern management practices that meet environmental requirements. In fact, the performance of state institutions depends more on management teams who run them. However, the public administration suffers from two decades of ineffective actions.
This inefficiency is due to lack of vision, incompetence, irresponsibility and rigidity of some leaders of public administration. Thus, all attempts to change faced more resistance from that the top of the base. With the shift change at the head of some departments or state agencies, the performance would necessarily fluctuate. The idea is not just to change the leadership but rather to change the way we see the practical and technical management, organizational structure etc. by borrowing successful modern methods from private sector.
Currently, in order to balance performance and government policy, public administration is able to rethink its objectives in the light of new logics introduced by modernization. However, the success of the latter depends on the process of its inception (design and conduct). In fact, many authors argue that the way to deal with change could be behind the success or failure of the organization. The goal is to derive an integrated model of strategic change management that will serve as a reference model. It is a dynamic model which will be adjusted for many public administration companies (Anderson & Anderson, 2001).
Administrative reforms
Administrative reforms indicate the adoption of essential instruments by the administration for the economic and social development of the country. It is set up of services which are the basis for the population in the areas of education, health social services, among others, and build basic infrastructure throughout the territory to facilitate the occupation. However, the aim for administrative reform attempts of change is to improve performance (effectiveness and efficiency) and the image of the government vis-à-vis its citizens. What interests us in this respect is the modernization component insofar as it constitutes a radical change in time. In principle, it is the implementation of the new management philosophy and for the first time adoption of customer-based approach in the public sector.
Modernization is a major change, a modification of long-term goals to the extent it affects several organizational domains. For our part, we aim first with the modernization, implementation of new modes, new practices and management techniques borrowed from private sector for the development of customer focus and improved performance, without compromising the political objectives of the state, then we aim coordination between departments within the same ministry and among all departments to encourage communication and promote the integrated management of human resources. Finally, we aim, through this process of modernization, creativity in the administration and management of the initiative at all levels of hierarchy. The goal is to serve the citizens.
Change Management
We aim in this concept the process of planned change which summarized in three main phases:
1.      Diagnosis of the situation and action planning;
2.      The execution of the action;
3.      Evaluation of the action or process of change (results) (Levesque, Prochaska & Prochaska, 1999)
It is noted that organizational change occurs at all levels and involves individuals and groups from the first to the last step of the hierarchy.
The design change
This is the first phase of change that relates to the diagnosis situation, the pilot study and detailed planning. As its name suggests, this is the time when we will implement the action plan that is drawn in the design phase. The degree of success will vary depending on the circumstances. Indeed, the implementation is of self-evident importance. Clearly this was no guarantee that the implementation work would be done properly or skillfully.
It is in the interest of the public administration that performance launched the movement of modernization and innovative management. In fact, the performance is conceived as the result of the success of the modernization program. In this respect, it seems obvious to define what is meant by performance.
This concept encompasses both the effectiveness and efficiency. Efficiency equals productivity performance, economy and all ratios results / outcomes and resource / work organization. The effectiveness equal relevance of objectives, level of achievement of objectives, usefulness and satisfaction of the medium and long term customer needs.
 Hambrick and Mason (1984) divided performance into four components that are profitability, changes in profitability, growth and survival. There are two types of performance measured by one economic productivity ratios and other measured by financial covenants. With the exception of the survival component, it is a purely economic perspective where performance is measured. This one has attracted the attention of many researchers. Indeed, people emphasize on the financial aspect to measure organizational performance because it is linked to the profitability of the company. It assesses if the company reaches its objective, if management is geared towards meeting this objective, if the capital is placed and if the company is financially sound.
However, there are other factors to be taken into account when defining performance, as the goals set by the organization, the social impact of mission of the organization, the acquisition of new methods and techniques of management make the organization more flexible, open and facilitator. Organization reputation, collective effort, the trust, the culture of cooperation and solidarity, humanitarian management, self-assessment, individual learning, etc. are all elements indicating the performance without the logic of the balance sheet or by shareholders' equity. This is what we call performance not measured. There is to note that although we try to quantify the qualitative many individual and social behaviors are beyond the logic of calculation.
In addition, some authors speak of strategic performance identifies the strategic choices made by the organization, the value of an organization and its future. The idea is to develop a form of evaluation that integrates the performance elements related to important variables neglected by the measurement of economic performance. Emphasis was placed on quality of product or service rendered and leadership.
The performance of the public sector
Performance can be understood as the realization by someone’s goals, objectives, duties and responsibility to distinguish its potential, its ability, his knowledge, his ability and his ability. Some authors relate the performance of the public sector to strengthen the values ​​of the state by strengthening its relations with citizens, in particular, the improvement of the quality of service. In fact, the service citizens are at the heart of the mission of the State. Some people connect the effectiveness of performance management but it is not only related to four skill areas namely: intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, the intellectual abilities and skills expertise, but also the need of achievement, ambition, energy, tenacity, initiative, to taste to achieve a mission (as opposed to the taste of the power narcissistic pleasure) honesty and integrity and self-confidence (which includes a kind of emotional balance)as important. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of managers, conducting person occupying privileged places within administration directly affects the performance. We can add that the emergence of new trends in thinking and innovative lines of action have a growing influence on the performance of organizational power as the new public management that makes modernizing a large factor in improving performance.
Case Study: Stanley Morgan Australia
To cope with the constraints and expectations of citizens in the new economic and technological requirements, Stanley Morgan is aware that it is time to manage company’s affairs in an innovative way. The connection between the crisis of governance, administrative reform and globalization brings the organization, Stanley Morgan to a point where it considered that change is necessary because the era of globalization has opened new avenues of research and it becomes the part of the ordinary landscape of the economic life cycle. Morgan Stanley believed that the environmental pressure pushes the company to change and this change is associated with a performance higher than the gradual and incremental change.
Design change under the theme of "doing more with less "began with the diagnosis of the general situation in which the organization currently existed in relation to its environment. It was, in fact, define problems to identify customers and enumerate the objectives of the new system before moving to its development. The purpose is not only to solve problems and facilitate procedures, but also to choose a new system to meet the higher needs of its customers. Indeed, this new system gives customers greater control, better service and less frustration and delays. In addition, it ensures better performance and increase profits while reducing the number of staff and expenditure.
The management of Stanley Morgan knows that the change requires a collective effort, involving all organizational aspects and whose implementation is spread over a longer period. This is a larger scale change up to the challenge goals or organizational structures. Such organizational change improves the performance of the sustainable management. This is done in stages through three approaches:
1.      A new management logic in the context of reorganization strategies (methods and practices, computerization, strategy and decentralization, etc.). This refers to the change in strategy and technology change;
2.      A new logic of human resource management in the context of restructuring strategies (skills development, HRM, redefinition of responsibilities, participative management, self-evaluation, monitoring etc.). This refers to the change in structure;
3.      A new political logic in the context of reorientation strategies(redefining the role of the state, new rules and procedures, reduction of deficit etc.). This refers to the change of culture (Laudon & Laudon, 2006).
Based on the diagnostic phase, the development has appealed to staff and management has worked closely with the customers. Stanley Morgan now treats everyone at the same level. Leadership is widespread throughout the organization and it is continuously changing and evolving. Leaders are not there to be managers or supervisors but are there to advise employees of consequences of actions. It gives employees responsibility for different tasks and people were empowered to perform their duties. The structure allows an employee to grow within the company by developing interpersonal relationships, gives self-commitment, responsibilities, leadership and discipline. (Waddell, Cummings, Worley, 2011)
The persons who are working for the different leaders must know that he or she is not just working for the leader but for the whole team as well and this was becoming a problem.  Additionally, this company has a clear chain of command, and the workers knew who their leaders were and they knew who to respond to each day. However, in this case, because the workers themselves had decided what they needed to work on, they set their own goals in which the problem became that the only person they responded to is the other workers or themselves.
Stanley provides training to help employees with leadership development and establish cooperative education programs. The organizational structure gives associates the right to be free with their working process. It gives more bureaucracy that allows employees to be a lot more productive. Employees don’t have to go around to different departments or authorities when it comes to making different purchases that will help them with their job descriptions.
The policy of the organization has a firm position, which is based on non-discriminatory standards of the workforce hiring practices regardless of the fact that whether they are heterosexuals or homosexuals. The company believes that all employees will be given the same benefits as the other employees. (Waddell, Cummings, Worley, 2011)  
The company is not hiring people to just fill the empty position in the company, but they are also focusing on the flexibility and the unique environment of the company that will ensure the strengths of the new workers.  New employees coming into the organization may find it very difficult to focus at first because they have no particular area to work in where they need to concentrate. This company gives employees the opportunity to become their own boss.
The company believes that further efforts will continue and the environment, management and structure of the company will keep changing in order to control changes in the future. Indeed, the company continues to work in close collaboration with a forum for users to control the system and make improvements and new technologies. Future plans include the use of distance technology in the registration system houses prefabricated.
In conclusion, the introduction of new management style, systems review information and the application of modern information technology has led to a transformation in the way to the working of the company. We attribute this success to the active participation of staff and customers. This helped bring significant improvements in the services offered to customers, taken the responsibility and the availability of accurate and updated.

August 3, 2014

Should You Take Career Self-Assessment Tests Online?

Taking Career Self-Assessment Tests Online

It is tough for us to become the competitive individuals unless we take some self assessment tests. There are a lot of ways to take these tests and see if we are eligible for a specific job or not.

Benefits of self-assessment

The self assessment workshops are of great benefits. Sometimes it happens that we fail to understand what capacities, stamina and work potential we have. We also don’t understand if we are suitable for a specific job or not. With the self assessment workshops we are better able to understand and know the hidden potentials. It also makes us understand if we are fit for a certain job or not.

Taking assessment online

The idea to take self assessment online is good to some extent. But to tell you honestly it is not that workable as is of a workshop. Online self assessments sometimes don’t make us understand if we will be able to have bright futures or not. On the other hand, the workshops allow us to get the answer of this question in a better way.

Websites for career self-assessment

There are a lot of websites which allow you to take self assessment. With these sites you will get to know if you can fit for a job or not.