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September 26, 2012

Autism

Autism
The Austism is the type of neural development’s disorder and it is characterized by communication, impaired social interaction as well as repetitive and restricted behavior. In detail, it could be defined in the following word:
“Austism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. These signs all begin before a child is three years old. Austism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize; how this occurs is not well understood. It is one of three recognized disorders in the Austism spectrum (ASDs), the other two being Asperger syndrome, which lacks delays in cognitive development and language, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (commonly abbreviated as PDD-NOS), which is diagnosed when the full set of criteria for Austism or Asperger syndrome are not met”. (Johnson & SM, 2007)
Discussion
The Austism spectrum disorder is the disorder of wide-spectrum, it means that the symptoms of ASD cannot be matched exactly between or among the different patients. Furthermore, because of experiencing different symptoms’ combinations, some patients and group of patients may have mild while the some other may have severe symptoms. (Medicalnewstoday, 2010)
Basically, The Austism has the strong genetic base, however it is the complex and this complexity is the challenge for researchers. Some explained it by rare mutations or unusual amalgamations of common genetic variants.
The Austism is the highly associated with the elements that are the cause of birth defects but in rare cases. The other controversies that are common and surrounded different proposed environmental issues like pesticides, heavy metals, vaccines, especially those vaccines that belong to the early age or childhood. However, the hypotheses of vaccine are implausible biologically and have not sufficient scientific evidence to proof. (Rutter, 2005)
Prevalence
As far as the Autism’s prevalence concern, the prevalence rate is about one to per one thousand people, further studies revealed that “the prevalence of ASD is about 6 per 1,000, with about four times as many males as females. The number of people diagnosed with Austism has increased dramatically since the 1980s, partly due to changes in diagnostic practice; the question of whether actual prevalence has increased is unresolved”. (Newschaffer, Croena and Daniels J, 2007)
Signs and Symptoms
The signs can be usually noticed by the parents in the first two year of child. These sign usually increased by the passage of time, some study show that the autistic patient initially developed normally than pick the high pace. Although initial cognitive interventions can provide assistance to the patient to gain self-care, communication skills and socialization but all these are only attempts, because there is no any proper cure and procedure that is developed uptill now. Furthermore, Some Austism patient are not able to enjoy their life independently and normally when they reached to the adulthood but some have capable to do that, as described earlier that the Austism has different face and symptoms in different patients. (Silverman C, 2008)
Austism is the highly inconsistent disorder of neuro-developmental, that starts it journey from the infancy and then followed the steady path without any decrease and reduction. The Overt symptoms that start after the age of six also followed the same path and established by the two or three years of age, this trend keeps continue throughout the adulthood, often in more muffled shape. The Austism is not distinguished by single symptom but by the characteristic of warning signs like: impairments in communication and in social interaction; as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. (London E, 2007)
Other aspects
The Austism peoples also respond against the information or thing in different and unique ways. This behavior may be aggressive, self-injurious or both. The Austism patients express or may express the following traits:
•          “Insistence on sameness; resistance to change
•         Difficulty in expressing needs; using gestures or pointing instead of words
•         Repeating words or phrases in place of normal, responsive language
•         Laughing (and/or crying) for no apparent reason; showing distress for reasons not apparent to others
•         Preference to being alone; aloof manner
•         Tantrums
•         Difficulty in mixing with others
•         Not wanting to cuddle or be cuddled
•         Little or no eye contact
•         Unresponsive to normal teaching methods
•         Sustained odd play
•         Spinning objects
•         Obsessive attachment to objects
•         Apparent over-sensitivity or under-sensitivity to pain
•         No real fears of danger
•         Noticeable physical over-activity or extreme under-activity
•         Uneven gross/fine motor skills
•         Non-responsive to verbal cues; acts as if deaf, although hearing tests are in normal range”. (Austism-society, 2010)
Some people are particularly more perceptive to sound, these sounds are very painful for number of specific persons, it should be noticed that it is being discussed about the general sounds and noises. The number of researcher and professionals percept that patient’s typical behavior (as some listed above) is the outcome of the difficulties in sensory integration. (Austism-society, 2010)
 There could be several causes of autism. Some people may be genetically inclined to autism while others are not. Some of that people will never grow symptoms because they have no any history to contact anything that belongs to genetic vulnerabilities. Other susceptible people may victim by the autism’s symptoms because of the environment like vaccines etc. however, vaccines are not entirely responsible but there combination in the genetic predisposition may cause autism.
The exact nature of the diathesis involved in causing autism is not clear at this time. It is not known with certainty whether there are multiple pathways that can result in autism or just one, for instance. What is known at this time, is that one of the pathways for vulnerability to autism likely does involve a genetically inherited biological predisposition.
There is the probability that the sibling of the affected, also has the autism with the ratio of three and six percent but this ratio is very small. However this ratio is much greater than those rates that occur in the unrelated people. Another difficulty in identifying the genetic origin is the lack of pedigree of the families.
Unlike those people who inherited disease of Huntington that does not hit until after the affected person has reached reproductive age, besides that the researchers has not the extended family histories, that has the key role in identification of genes that implicated in breast cancer, cystic fibrosis and other diseases. (Dougherty, 2000)
But interestingly the studies on the twin revealed the strong information about the role of genetics in autism.
 “One study showed that the likelihood that the identical twin of an autistic child also would be autistic was 82 percent, whereas the equivalent rate for fraternal twins was only 10 percent. With sophisticated statistical techniques and numerous twin studies, behavioral geneticists now believe that as much as 90 percent of the behavioral phenotype of autism is related to inherited genes. Such a high genetic contribution appears to be the exception rather than the rule when considering complex behaviors. This is probably because a relatively small number of genes may be involved in autism (but certainly more than one), whereas other behaviors may be influenced by many genes.” (Dougherty, 2000)
The further studies and researcher are still in progress to reveal and identify the further dimension of genetic relationship that has influence in autism. There is still a long journey to explore the new dimensions about these relationships.

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