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September 14, 2012

Essay Paper on Computer Security

12:58 PM

Ways To Keep Computer Safe From Cyber Crime

            In the society of today telecommunication and computer networks play a vital role in the lives of one and all.  The technology despite being a blessing can also create moments of despair and distress. There are many unlawful activities within the same blessing. It is an undeniable fact that besides being a useful tool of information, the same can be used for crimes such as hacking, blackmailing, cyber bulling, money laundering and cyber terrorism etc (Milhorn, 2007).

            The first electronic computers were launched in the era of late 40s and the early 50s in the military laboratories as well as in the universities (Milhorn, 2007). As soon as it was available everywhere, many people predicted that it has the capability to shake things up. Today when one sees at the world of information technology, then the same can be said as nothing but the ultimate truth. Today there is no field of life that doesn’t require the support of it. Look at the field of science and technology, business, industries and last but not the government. Infact lives today might come to halt for quite sometime if all of a sudden the world comes to know that the computers and the world of IT is just no more.
            Taking the example of contemporary business, everyone knows how the transformation of classical business to a more contemporaneous came about. The support is provided by the digital technology. Today the banks have changed their old ways of distributing the funds and have adopted the same with the use of computer networks. Thus today there is a concept of automated teller machine (ATM) that makes the withdrawal of cash much easier than ever before. Thus a cashless society relies on the computer systems. Thus the banks increasingly rely upon the quick systems of automated system of payment (Milhorn, 2007).
On the contrary, the criminals find the technology more user-friendly for their purposes. Thus they make things that affect more users in a negative way rather than in a positive manner. There has been a regular increase in child pornography, hacking, virus writing, black mailing etc. Thus it can be said that despite being a blessing it can also turn anyone’s life to complete hell. These types of crimes are referred to as cyber crimes or digital crimes.  The activities done with the business point of view are known as ‘legal activities’ whereas the unethical or criminal activities are known to be ‘illegal activities’ (Reyes& O'Shea, 2007). 
            There are lots of diverse sides to the discourse on ethical and moral utilization of information processing system. In many perspectives, the principles of a particular use of a computer are up to the person to make up his/her mind. For this purpose, infrangible practices of law about moral usage of computer are nearly, but not on the whole inconceivable to determine. Since the computers were introduced in the workplace, the business has been ever productive. Yet at the very same instant, it has raised questions among the employers to maintain the workplace sanity and avoid the risks to health.
Can employers forbid employes from mailing private memorandums by e-mail to a companion at the office somewhere other? Should the employers keep an eye on the work done by an employee on the computers? Should the employers issue the employees a formal warning  (Reyes& O'Shea, 2007)?  
Computer Crime has become a very large issue in the society of today looking at this issue from a sociology standpoint. It will analyze the various crimes that make up computer crime and see what changes it has brought about in the world in which we live in. Computer crime first is a very new problem in our society today and it is crimes that are committed from a computer. These include embezzling, breaking into other computers, cyber porn and various other crimes that have a drastic affect on the society and the institutions that each of us hold to keep our global society running. To first understand computer crime one must understand first what crime is.
According to Diana Kendall, "crime is a behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail or other sanctions". Yet since computer technology is so new it has really no laws to govern it. A law is formal norms that are enforced, norms being established rules of behavior. Many of the crimes committed on computers often times go unpunished. As stated by David Pitchford in the London journal Focus when writing on pornography on the Internet, " the only way illegal pornographers can be caught is through chance leads, tip-offs and telephone tracing". Many of the crimes that are also committed on computers via the Internet are very new also. New subcultures have formed around the Internet for the possibilities it brings. Computer crime despite the many problems it has brought has also brought some needed social controls to the Internet and as stated before some laws have been formed to protect many of the institutions that because of computer crime have become targets for criminals.
Now that I have briefly explained computer crime, I will go into further depth into explaining computer crime from the different sociological perspective theories. To start with is the integrationist perspective looks at of society as the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups". Many of those that commit computer crimes are hackers or people who hack into computer systems for both fun and for gaining access to information. They have formed their own subcultures and hold many different beliefs about the information that is stored in personal computers  (Fair et al., 2005).
Said best by J. Thomas McEwen in the article Computer Ethics many hackers believe that "computerized data is free and should be accessible to anyone. A subculture is a group a group of people who share a different set of beliefs that differ significantly from the larger society  (Fair et al., 2005). Besides forming subcultures, many hackers have learned their behavior from other hackers. The behavior they learn seems to lend credibility to Edwin Sutherlands Differential Association Theory "which states that individuals are more likely to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with persons who are more favorable toward deviance than conformity.
According to McEwen most "young computer hackers beliefs come from association with other hackers, not family members and teachers. Besides the fact that many hackers learn, their ways from other hackers many after arrested are formally labeled as a hacker and a deviant, those who violate cultural norms and beliefs. The labeling theory suggests that deviants are those have been labeled as such by others. In theory than, after the person has been arrested they than assume that label and act accordingly. As written by David Pitchford in the London magazine, Focus, one hacker after being arrested was not deterred, he instead became a more active and in "92 became cyberspaces first megastar Pitchford" (Milhorn, 2007). It was only after his second arrest that he stopped offences. Besides the interactionist, perspective on computer crime is the conflict theory. "The conflict theory states that people in power maintain their advantage by using the law to protect their own interest". Under the conflict perspective, hackers and other computer criminals are seen as deviant because many hackers break into large companies for the "mindless desire for glory. " However besides hackers lack of any real criminal desires they are still seen as deviant because they blatantly while doing their hacking.
Since the Internet is a global tool, many of the crimes that are committed extend beyond national borders. For this reason the advent of computer crime have made the global community smaller. What one hacker does on his computer in another country affects you and I. This can be seen with the recent virus "Love bug", this virus disabled computer systems worldwide. Yet, because of the quickly advancing computer technology a cultural lag has been created. A cultural lag is a gap between the technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions. The "Love bug" virus; a set of commands that change computer programming and sometimes destroy files, one example of a virus is a "worm, which is a self replicating program”. The "love bug" virus in the last month crippled global companies by erasing files of any computer it downloaded into. Yet, since the hacker was from the Philippines, which have no law against "computer hacking he may be able to escape any conviction." So the hacker who caused damage of 15 billion worldwide could get away with a crime considered a felony in the U.S.
Although computer crime and hacking have become a global problem, it does serve a function in society. Under the functionalist perspective, "society seeks equilibrium within the five institutions of the economy, family, education, government and religion." So as a hacker destroys either government files or the files on your personal computer, the other institutions are affected. Computer crime serves in society as a way for the computer Internet to police itself by creating better systems that stop hackers from breaking into systems. "After a break in city banks cash management system city bank upgraded it so customers accounts were safer". New police divisions have also sprung up to keep an eye on the Internet, the FBI and the Chicago police have units that specialize in computer crime. While computer crime may cause havoc and unrest, it has made the government and those who control it keep everything in balance. The other institutions are effected also but not as drastically as the economy and the government. Families have become more aware of security on their computers and many people are becoming more educated on those previously shadowy figures known as hackers.
            In my view point hacking and computer crime will be with us for as long as we have the Internet. It is our role to keep the balance between what is a crime and what is done for pure enjoyment. Luckily, the government is making an effort to control the Internet. Yet, true control over the Internet is impossible, because the reasons the Internet was created. This is why families and the institution of education of is needed, parents need to let their children know what is okay to do on the computer and what is not and to educate them on the repercussions of their actions should they choose to become part of the subculture of hackers.
Although something like this has not been reported yet, there are no laws against it, at this point. More and more data base companies are monitoring individuals with little regulation. 'Other forms of monitoring-such as genetic screening-could eventually be used to discriminate against individuals not because of their past but because of statistical expectations about their future'.
                    Computers also can be physically harmful to people. People who use computers too much can suffer from vision loss, to varying degrees, due to staring at the screen for extended lengths of time. They can also have problems with the muscles in their hands from typing so often. They can acquire back problems from sitting in chairs behind desks at computer screens, all day long. Some people say that computers allow humans to cheat. They give us the answers. They allow us to stop thinking. They believe it is unethical for the computers to do the work for us. These people may be right in that some humans allow computers to do work for them, but then if people did not make use of the new inventions and time- savers, farmers would still be plowing with a horse and we'd still be cooking on an open fire. Until computers exhibit actual artificial intelligence, though, we are still the ones doing the thinking. We program the computers to do what we want them to do.

In conclusion, computer crime does have a drastic affect on the world in which we live. It affects every person no matter where they are from. It has made those who committed the crimes into top headlines. It is ironic that those who in secret break into computers across the world for enjoyment have been labeled as deviance. Many hackers view the Internet as public space for everyone and do not see their actions as criminal. Hackers are as old as the Internet and many have been instrumental in making the Internet what it is now. Yet, despite this view popular culture and society have labeled hackers and computer criminals as deviants.


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