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September 27, 2012

Ethno Pharmacology Essay


Ethno Pharmacology
Ethno pharmacology or ethnic pharmacology is associated with botany and is a scientific study of ethnic groups and their use of drugs. Simply, it can be defined as the correlation between ethnicity or race and how the body of a person metabolizes medicinal drugs. I personally am in total agreement with the statement of Cora Muñoz, which says that ethnicity significantly affects the response of drug on different people. According to her, all the people in health care profession need to know that several drugs are metabolized and absorbed in a different manner by different people. And this statement is supported by research in the past fifteen years on some of the drugs, especially for psychotropic and hypertension (Alloy Education, 2011).
The United States of America is becoming more and more diverse according to culture, race, and religion every day. The inhabitants are from many other countries of the world, far or near. People have different religious faiths, they are different in color, and even their cultures are totally different to each other. Not only this but diversity can also be observed in their educational standards, some are well educated and some have not even been to elementary schools. The research of Ethno pharmacology has discovered that there is a significant and direct effect of ethnicity and all these factors on the response of drugs on people.
Genetics or Ethical factors, or both, may influence pharmacokinetics (metabolism, distribution, absorption, and elimination), pharmacodynamics (the target site and its mechanism of action) and patient’s education and adherence of a given of drug.  In addition, the enormous variance within each of the wider racial & cultural categories determined by the United States Census Bureau (categories frequently used by research workers) must be looked at. Individuals in medical profession need to be well educated about medicines that are likely to evoke deviated reactions in people with different cultural backgrounds, as well as the possibility of contrary effects. Thus, ethnical assessment of each and every patient is critical (Lippincott’s Nursing Center, 2011).
Although the determinations of the Human Genomic Project show that all the humans are approximately 99% genetically similar, ethnicity and race do impact in how a person’s body metabolizes and absorbs certain medicinal drugs. Since most of the drugs are primarily tested on Caucasian males, this impact is not always known. Ethnic or racial minorities and women have been excluded for decades, underrepresented severely, in clinical examinations for new drugs.
There is a major role of culture in shaping people’s health practices and beliefs, letting in their mental attitudes about taking drug. This, successively, can have an impact on a patient’s adherence to a prescribed medication systematic plan for therapy. According to Warren, “You have to get a load at the values and the ethnical faiths & then the entire link to pharmacology. That is even as essential ethnicity and race – what the cultural beliefs are that act upon why people take medicinal drug or why they do not.
Biases about a cultural, ethnic or racial group and clinical belief can also act upon how medicinal drug is prescribed & hence, how efficacious it is for an individual. Campinha-Bacote signals to a report that looked at how psychoactive medications were prescribed to African American versus European American teens. Both the group of teenagers had the same “psychotic score”, when tested. Even so, although all of the juveniles had serious mental malady, the blacks were more probable to be prescribed psychotropic medicinal drugs than the whites. Even when there are 2 similar groups with the same degree of psychotic indications, the shrinks sensed African American teenagers to be more psychotic and more aggressive, so blacks were prescribed more frequent doses of the antipsychotic drugs. The prescription of medication can be affected by the biases and skill in how you assess different cultural groups.
Tobacco and alcohol usage differ in various cultures and genes, might impact a person’s response to drug. It has been noted that the consumption of alcohol and tobacco can alter the rate at which any medicinal drug is metabolized & cleared. A review states that smoking has been shown to decrease serum levels of traditional antipsychotics such as fluphenezine and chlorpromazine; this may happen due to cigarette smoking effects on liver enzymes. An assessment of culture can help get other essential information like preferences of diets, traditions associated with use of tobacco and alcohol, and herbal products usage. Nurses also require digging into their own views including misconceptions or assumptions they may have, to become a culturally competent nurse (Alloy Education, 2011).






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