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October 4, 2012

A computer science essay

Computer Science
A database is the organized computer program that has the core function of storing, organizing and retrieve a heap of different kinds of data. The database is the combination of organized data can easily be used for different purposes such as monitoring and analyzing. there are different type of database classifications that comprises with their type of contents such as statistical and bibliographic etc. these type of digital database are organized and administrate via DMS that is known as database management system (Simon, 1999) that is type of electronic reservoir that not only store content of database but also perform other type of different activities such as data creation and its administration, the search operation as well as different type of access privilege (Chappel).
These databases on the one side are the efficient reservoir of different type of information including personal information such as DNA data bases that are comprises with highly sensitive personal information. But on the other side these electronic databases opened the new threats of leaking the personal information in the shape of mutual contact and by the hackers who are keenly interested to reap the financial gains.  There are different types of stories that are common place and these types of stories are the catalyst of hype to prorogate the internet and the databases, especially the online databases as the type of insecure communication tools. Furthermore, there are different type of social issues that are still questionable such as equity of access to information and infrastructure that is the catalyst to access the information such as the will the information be available only for particular class or for everyone and on which cost ( Gonzales).
There are lots of privacy issues that are the buzzwords and keep arising. These privacy issues are the catalysts that kept the government officials from developing the databases, specially the online database previously. During the period of 1965, the lots of different type of data was being gathered via the channel of different type of agencies but in a haphazard way (R. Milne, 2000). In that connection, the suggestion of National Data Center is given to use as centralized reservoir and tool to administrate the heap of information but this suggestion became the catalyst of bipartisan condemnation and that idea became the history. There are lots of concern that different business entities and people raised in the connection of observing and tracking their habits and activities (The technology of 2011).
However, there are several economical and ethical issues that are the buzzword in the domain of privacy debates such as business and marketing agencies may share the customer personal information to promote the business, (Lathem 2008) but on the other side it should be noticed that no any business will want to lose their credentials by leaking its clientele information because this leakage mean that to leak the business and give the opportunities to the rival by its own hand (Understanding privacy tradeoffs 2010).
To be specific, database has its own pros and cons but it does not mean that this useful tool is totally useless. There are lots of databases such as financial database, police database and DNA database, etc. that has their own functionalities. at this point, for an example, it would like to be discussed about the DNA database and its importance that is inevitable in forensic investigation (Dna fingerprinting 2005).
DNA evidence has been progressively more accepted by state and federal courts as acceptable evidence. The 1st appellate court verdict to accept DNA evidence was in 1988 (Andrews v. Florida, 533 So. 2d 841), and the 1st main federal court decision to accept it, occurred in Jakobetz. During the 1990s, majority of the states permitted DNA test results as acceptable evidence (The DNA "war" 1996).
Civil cases have itself are the multidimensional aspects, in fraud cases where the alteration of documents is suspected or in practice, the collection of DNA samples from the Scene; play a key role. This collection of DNA sample could be taken from the sweat, fiber or any type of smooth surface; where is the possibility to find the sweat any other type of body fluids etc. This DNA collection method could be practiced when two individuals have disputes over hitting each other car or vehicles. In that cases suspected DNS could be analyzed that at the time of accident, was the suspects driving or not.
In the cases of traffic signal breaking, it should be noticed that most of these incidents are held because of high speed that may cause to severe injuries or casualty(s). All these type of cases; DNA analysis could be done to identify or confirm the responsible one. In the child custody cases where the suspects deny or claim about the particular child or child custody that the particular child is belong or not belong to him or her. DNA examination helps here significantly.
DNA examination may or can play a vital role to analyze, justify or alter the crime scene investigations. DNA sample could easily be collected from the body and bodily liquids and fluids such as blood, urine, salvia and semen etc to determine the alcohol level, to analyze the consensual means that sexual associates. DNA samples from Hair also play vital role in examine the evidence of sexual assault etc. “The examination of such substances can not only provide clues as to the identity of the offender, but also help investigators develop a detailed picture of the sequence of events which occurred. The presence of certain bodily fluids can be excellent indicators of what has occurred” (Forensic biology 2010).
Now, have some discussion on the pros and cons of creating a national DNA database
  • Guiltless individuals now are incarcerated for offenses they did not do; if DNA samples had been collected at the time of investigation or arrest, these guiltless people could have been proven blameless and thereby avoided imprisonment.
  • Arrestees of Banking DNA as a substitute of banking that of convicted lawbreaker could/ may result in financial advantages in imprisonment, investigation and trial.
  • Most of the crimes often involve individuals who also have committed other crimes and offenses. The DNA banked potentially could or might make it flexible  to identify the responsible like a fingerprint databases perform
  • Sensitive information, such as disease vulnerability and family relationships can be obtained from this DNA bank. Different officials and agencies using the database have access to public DNA without their permission that is the type of intrusion of personal privacy and a basic violation of civil rights.
  • If DNA of the public is in law enforcement agencies’ databases, they might be recognized as matches or semi-matches to the DNA that found at the incident scene(s). This happens even with guiltless people, for example, if a person had been at the scene earlier or had a identical DNA profile to the actual unlawful person (in case of Twins).
  • Because of increasing cyber crime rate, there is the big chance to break the security measure of that database and cheat or destroy the information.
  • Studies of criminal database, which contain the DNA models of suspects, express that cultural minorities are misrepresented in the arrestees’ population, therefore, misrepresented in the DNA database bank. This ignites the concern of bias (ethnic) in the justice system.
  • Suspects often are found blameless of offenses. The preservation of blameless people's DNA raises major social and ethical issues (Dna forensics 2009).
According to my viewpoint, people resist to change, therefore the resistance against DNA database or any other type of database is the obvious psychological effects. But the bottom line is that this DNA database will play a highly effective role to identify and mitigate the crime rate but necessary security measure will be inevitable to reap the maximum and accurate benefit from this database or you may say that the DNA databank. Ultimately, the assurance is inevitable that the databases are being used to defend the nation, national resources, and concurrently that data is not being abused and violated our civil liberties.


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