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October 9, 2012

Essay Example on History and life of a Sheriff


History and the life of a sheriff
The sheriff is the part and parcel role of today’s American Society, the sheriff personality and the logo is considered the sign of safety because of sheriff power and influence to reduce the crime and to assuring the law and order situation in his or her jurisdiction.
The role of the Sheriff in not new, it has the roots from the England, the sheriff and its related concepts are the dated back notion that almost has1000 years old history. However, in the period of 7th century, the “tuns” that was (Later Towns) to develop families’ group of ten formed “tens”, afterward cluster of tens made comparatively the big group that was pronounced as “hundreds.” There were numerous “hundreds.” That started to geographically distinguish as the “scir.” The Word “scir” was the Anglo-Saxon that means “a piece shorn off.” By the passage of time the word Scir transformed into the word/ term “Shire”. The Shire formed a guardian that was selected by hundred to act as “gerefa” or Guardian. During the journey of sheriff, Gerefa transformed into “Reeve” then “Shire Reeve” finally transformed as “Sheriff” or as the “Peace Keeper of the King.”
In the era of kings, the Sheriff was the senior most position in the English Office. At that time period, the Sheriff used to responsible to administrate the shires as the servant of the king, to collect the taxes as well as to do the corrective measure regarding the abuses.
In the connection of sheriff History, John Howard is considered as the prominent English Sheriff. In the period of 1756, he was captured by the pirates during his travel to the Portugal and in the year of 1773, when he released, he was appointed as the Sheriff in the vicinity of Bedfordshire.
John devoted his remaining entire life to improve the jail and its prisoner’s conditions. In that connection he got success by passing the “Penitentiary Act” in 1779. John was so enthusiastic in the perspective of his goal that was to improving the Jail conditions as described above, he also came to America to provide assistance to the American official in the connection of his goal. However, the surprising fact is that in England, during the middle period of 16th century the Sheriff Position and his authority is decreased, because of the decentralization of the power to the other positions.
As far as the Sheriff role in the America in concerned, the 1635, is the year when the history of Sheriff is begun inside the America ("Office of the sheriff”). The Accomac County was the historical place, where the first American Sheriff was appointed whose name was William Stone. In the year of 1648, William went to Maryland where he was appointed by the Lord Baltimore who was the Governor of Maryland at that time.
The key aspect that should be noticed that in 1635, Virginia was the historical place in that connection, where the American Sheriff history was borne after the settlements to empower and strength the civil authorities. In the year of 1649, in the vicinity of James town, the Sheriff was empowered and considered as the peace keeper as the representative of the King.
In 1651, the declaration was approved about the select a sheriff by each county. In that connection, the Northampton County’s Commissioners gave the right to choose the Sheriff to their citizens, resulting, the William Waters were the 1st elected Sheriff of the American Sheriff History. This election was the catalyst of forming and reforming the stages of Sheriff Election. At that time Sheriff was responsible to act as financial and police officer. The key duties was about to serve the warrants and arrests with the prime responsibility to collect the taxes and to fulfillment the particular court orders.
However, to be precise, now, one can find the role of Sheriff in the 47 States of the America except the Alaska that has no any county government, Hawaii that has deputy sheriffs in its Public Safety Department and Connecticut where in the year of 2000 four Sheriffs were abolished. In the USA, the numbers of Sheriff are electoral basis except the Rhode Island where the Governor appointed 5 Sheriffs for the ten year terms. According to the source, there are 3100 Sheriffs in the America.
To be more precise, in Virginia the Sheriff has three key responsibilities regarding the Jails, Law Enforcement, Court Security and/or Civil Process. ("Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography" ). Generally, in USA, Sheriff's responsibilities are: “State statutes or state constitutions regulate many duties of a sheriff and emphasize preserving the peace and enforcing criminal laws. Sheriffs arrest and commit to jail felons and other lawbreakers, including pretrial detainees and sentenced prisoners. They transport prisoners to state penal facilities and mental patients to state commitment facilities. In addition, a sheriff is usually responsible for the custody and care of the county courthouse and the jail, attends upon courts of record in serving process, and often has the power to summon jurors. As an officer of the court, a sheriff is subject to a court's orders and direction. Sheriffs also have the power to serve process, including summons, mesne (intermediate) process, and final process…….. As part of the traditional common-law duties passed down from the English, sheriffs retain the power to summon the aid of a posse, or posse comitatus, as it is sometimes called. Ideally, a posse furnishes immediate, able-bodied assistance to a sheriff in need….. Sheriffs also levy writs of attachment, that is, the seizure of a debtor's property pursuant to a court order. The sheriff must safeguard seized goods from damage or loss, but he does not absolutely ensure their safety, etc.” ("Sheriff," 2005). These described duties are the key selected ones and change in the sheriff duties is dependent upon the official authorities. For example, in the York County, Virginia, the Sheriff role that is described officially is to “Conducting criminal investigations, Arresting offenders, Serving criminal and civil warrants, providing courthouse and courtroom security and providing general law enforcement protection.
The Sheriff has both criminal and civil jurisdiction in both York County and the City of Poquoson. However, deputies concentrate their law enforcement activities within York County as the City of Poquoson has a municipal Police Department. The Sheriff’s Office serves civil process and provides courtroom security for the City on a routine basis, and provides other services as called upon or is necessary” ("York/poquoson sheriff's office" ). Currently, J.D. "Danny" Diggs, is the York County’s Sheriff, who was elected in 1999 for his third term.
All in all, the essence of above discussion is to describe the precise historical background with current role of the Sheriff, the Sheriff is the key role of the society whose life are filled with the multidimensional quest  to promote the peace, curb the crime and maintain  the law and order situation. The Sheriff role as the career is ideal for those who are adventure lover with the patriotism. 


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