The process of child development involves the numerous processes and methods which enable a child to experience and undergo stages which are mandatory for its effective development to transform him into an individual to compete with the challenges and tedious tasks that he is going to further encounter in life. The development in itself is an extremely sensitive matter, primarily because of the delicate nature of a child’s mind. (Meadows, 1986)
Child development is mainly conducted on three core principles which play the most crucial role in the future personality makeover of an individual, these stages include physiological, psychological and sociological aspects of child growth. These three prime features and their relative contributions in the development of a child will be looked upon in the upcoming phases of discussion. It is important to mention here that is through the combination and effectual synchronization of different forces and their proper organization which helps in the proper development of a child. These fundamental agents constitute physiological, psychological and social institutions. (Slee and Shute, 2003)
Physiological Development of Child
The biological wing of physiology deals with the dual aspect of physical as well as mental and emotional development of a child; hence the contribution of both aspects and their effects on child development will be highlighted. It is also important to mention that these studies have been conducted with the help of special research procedures and methodologies. Considering the physical development first, it has been observed that with the development and subsequent maturation of the gross motor skills, the child at age one can easily grasp things can walk by taking support of furniture. At age two he or she can build small blocks, at age three it has been observed that the child tries to ride a tricycle and by the age of five and six the child develops the ability to tie his or her own shoelaces and draw colored lines.
As far as the emotional and social development of the child in the infancy phase is concerned, it has been seen that by the time the child is 18 months old, he or she develops a feeling of either trust or mistrusting the world and by the time the age of three is reached the child shows learning of instincts of courage and self-control, these characteristics further motivate them to take initiative by themselves even if the situations make them guilty of doing something wrong.
With the passage of time the child also shows great potential of developing their communication skills either by imitating and responding to sounds and faces, they are familiar with. With the increase of age these responses maturate into questions of reasoning and instincts of possession in a child’s disposition.
In tandem to this, thinking skills of children also develop which is manifested through the responses of objects, by age two they can segregate things based on the differences of color and size, but it is worth mentioning that brain development is not complete until adolescence, hence children cannot make use of adult reasoning. (Madrone, 2009)
The psychological development of a child is more concerned with the motor region and nervous development of a child and the different responses that the child gives to sight, taste, sound, language and environment. It is mainly through the study and analysis of various researches that the psychological responses of a child are determined. These responses include learning of emotions, language and recognition of faces. The emotions in the developmental stages of a child are mainly acquired through observation of a child which strengthens their presence in the child’s mind with the passage of time.
In the initial stages these images are like flashes which disappear once executed and need to be reconstructed in the child’s mind for acquiring the child’s feedback regarding it. With the increase of age language is another major area which is acquired and learned by children. The process through which it is executed is completely adaptive in nature as the child learns the kind of language that is being spoken in his or her surroundings.
Once the language learning process is completed, the next stage of facial recognition of people through the help of which a child differentiates and simultaneously understands the importance of each person with his or her relationship to the child. (Aaronson, 2010)
The process of socialization through which an individual acquires the activities of a group are overwhelmingly influenced by the functioning of various social institutions through which a child learns and subsequently develops his behavioral responses towards the society. It is through the help of these institutions like family, peer group and media which as the pivotal forces and agencies of socialization. With the help of social institutions a child develops an approach and understanding of the different gender roles, family customs and traditions, cultural implications and his very own limits that prevent him from conducting any unethical or immoral act. Many of the social institutions like religious and media help in acquainting him to his mandatory obligations and shape his belief system as to what he observes his parents doing; media plays a crucial role in inventing his sources of learning and behaviors which play a profound role in shaping his future outlook towards life.
Hence the role of social institutions is much more significant as it deals with the phases of adolescent development as compared to psychological and physiological which are solely concerned with infant development. (Berns, 2009)