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October 31, 2012

Essay on Nation Energy Needs


Nations Energy Needs
Introduction
With the rampant deterioration of the environment taking place, with the panic striking and scandalizing environmental issues like global warming and greenhouse effect making banner headlines in our newspapers and bulletins, the entire world is busy devising energy reforms that can save the planet from plunging deep into the pit of destruction and catastrophe. In order to counter the looming energy crisis that is engulfing the world research scientists all over the world are busy brainstorming their ageing heads through which reliable energy systems can be devised, which can prove effective in resolving environmental disasters. (Costanza, 1991)
In order to achieve this objective, substantial progress has been made in the form of accentuating greater usage for energy production and consumption by making use of renewable energy resources which do not undergo exhaustion unlike conventional resources of energy such as coal, oil and natural gas. Another reason due to which the significance of renewable resources has reached unprecedented levels is the economic feasibility involved and it is due to this importance a new discipline of environmental economics has invaded the ecological mainstream this century.
According to the National Bureau of Economic Research the environmental economics is the science of empirical and theoretical studies which studies the effect of ‘national or local environmental policies around the world’ it further deals with the economic aspects of environmental policies through cost benefit analysis and ways to counter the rising threat of air pollution, global warming and water quality. 
As said earlier progress on the development and the subsequent extraction of energy benefits from such resources is in progress, but it is still being used on a very limited scale. Over 80% of global energy production is still being made through the burning of coal, which in alliance with oil and natural gas resources has increased the percentage of atmospheric carbon dioxide to over 84% over a period of 14 years. A question that can justly be asked here is why the exploration of renewable energy resources still in its embryonic stages? (Kosltad 2010)
 During the course of this discussion we would be looking at the effectiveness that can be incorporated in our currently prevalent energy systems in order to curb the gravity of the energy crisis that we are presently confronted with.
Biodiesel: the introduction
Before highlighting the different features and facilities that are associated with this form and method of energy generation it is important to consider the different ways in which this form of energy is produced. Furthermore it is also important that the fundamental differences between bio fuels and diesel fuels.
Coming towards the differences it is important to understand that the critical difference between bio and diesel fuels comes in the number of years that each of these fuels takes to undergo complete combustion. Bio diesel is extracted from organic material and the decay of biological organisms. It is because of the low duration of preparation time and the renewable nature of this form of energy that has provided it pivotal importance in contemporary scenario in which countries are confronted with looming energy crisis.
Bio diesel can be extracted from multitude sources which include corn, sugar cane, palm, wheat and algae. From these extraction sources two valuable products are manufactured which include bioethanol and diesel. With the help of these sources bio diesel is very easily used for transportation purposes which are very compatible in terms of retaining environmental and ecological balance.(Costanza, 1991)
The debate on bio fuels
In the debate on bio fuels, it often refers to the country's energy dependence which is 86.1% fossil oil and 81.8% on natural gas which could be reduced by local production of energy. Many international obligations, take for example within the EU percentage of renewable energy sources 5.75% in 2010 and 20% in 2020 and the Kyoto treaty weigh heavily in favor of the adoption of these new alternatives.
In Hungary, the use of non-exhaustible am is not efficient wind energy is better suited for countries closer to ocean or beside the mountains, the energy of the water as more effective in mountainous region and not in a pool as Hungary or, requiring a very expensive infrastructure, such as solar energy. So with the conditions of great agricultural country, with the biomass we hope to reach the European objective a realistic cost. (Mathew, 2006)
Proponents of this type of technology claim that with the widespread usage of bio fuels and diesel oil prices would be able to maintain a stable level and hence countries that are dependent upon oil resources will be able to make their standing and would also be in a position to maintain their stable economic standing irrespective of the economic fluctuations in oil prices.
Moreover with the help of bio fuels and diesel environment friendly and renewable sources of energy can be explored through the help of which the level of pollution rising all over the world will be able to come to a manageable level, thus leading to a reduction in the percentage of emission of harmful gases in the environment.
Moreover with the help and availability of cheap fuels the ultimate cost and expense related to the transportation of different kinds of vehicles will also come within an affordable and economic range for a large number of consumers and people all over the world. (Richard, 2009)
One key question that is raised by the opponents of the biodiesel and fuel technology is in relation to the sustainability of this form of energy. At present, the most important channels of bio fuels are bioethanol from corn United States, but also Hungary, or wheat being used European Union, beet or cane sugar. Energy efficiency, environmental balance and the greenhouse effect bio fuels are questionable. In addition, various calculations differ widely, which allows all parties to cite the results appropriate to their causes.
The only ethanol plant whose efficiency and low production costs make it profitable, ethanol is sugar cane produced in Brazil, but with unacceptable social and environmental costs. Here we come to the perverse phenomenon of supporting a system that involves cutting the virgin forest for monoculture plantations because of EU objectives of reducing greenhouse gases. In addition, this production moves entire communities from their land previously used for food production.
It is also questionable to change the energy dependence of America on fossil fueled for a biomass dependence on imports from developing countries said. The European cattle eat already imported soya beans; add it now imports oil from rapeseed, which increased by 10 in one year.
As for European agriculture, the production of ethanol raises the temptation to fix the problem of European grain surpluses without making structural reforms on the production system by considering the grain sources of energy rather than food.
In Hungary, where cereal production has a structural surplus of 2-2.5 million tons, this argument weighs particularly heavily on public debate. It is hoped that the competition between food and energy use will increase the price of cereals and benefit producers. Government programs in Hungarian rural development, it aims to respond to the doubts concerning the balance of greenhouse related to ethanol production by introducing new ethanol plants the condition that at least 50% energy used in production must be renewable. (Olan and Surya, 2009)
Conclusion
In conclusion it would be appropriate to say that the fate of this kind of technology and energy generation method of biodiesel and fuel still hangs in an oscillating balance in which it has become extremely difficult for governments especially of developed countries to decide which course would they take on this globally crucial issue and thus determine the subsequent direction of either peace or war in the global energy sector.



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