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October 22, 2012

Essay on Odysseus

The Odyssey was considered a legend and Odysseus a king of the Greek land called Ithaca. The character Odysseus is the key role player and the Hero as Homer describes him in his epic product the Odyssey.  Odysseus was the father of Telemachos, husband to Penelope, inventor of the Trojan horse, son of Laertes, nemesis of Poseidon and favorite of Athena. Although there are many aspects to discus about that subject but in this paper, the following aspects would be discussed:
Odysseus' character in terms of the good choices and the poor choices he makes; Odysseus' worst action of his wanderings and why? Who is Odysseus' main enemy and why? Could this opposition have been avoided? Comparison of Odysseus to any modern hero in books or movies; is he truly a hero?
The good and the positive points that were kept motivating Odysseus to constantly struggle and try to survive are courage and wisdom. Courage and wisdom were the key motivator to do unbelievable jobs with glory and confidence like “Odysseus kills the Cyclops while the giant is asleep, even though the monster ate two men minutes before” (Homer, P 110). The courage to do thing accurately and the wisdom that enable him to make right decision are the catalyst that keep Odysseus motivated to keep doing the actions besides the counter arguments and opinion that make the man sometime confused. Courage and wisdom were the honor and pride for the Odysseus and because of these characteristics, Odysseus always preferred and did different types of jobs, tasks and responsibilities with full of completeness e.g. “Odysseus plugs the sailors' ears with wax when going through the Sirens, whose sweet singing lures sailors to their doom” (Homer, P 141).
Another key point of his character is his ability of analyzing the situation, before taking any action Odysseus use to examine and analyze the situation properly; keen activity provided him and his fellow sailors or travelers a presentation against undesirable circumstances and situations. Odysseus knew very well that without the wisdom and courage, it is impossible to reach at the pinnacle of any success and to achieve the target.
As all we know, the coin has a flip side as well. Therefore, the pride and confidence of the wisdom that had some negative impacts on the Odysseus characters and because of these negative impacts, Odysseus made some unkind decisions. Was the projection of the Odysseus’s cruelty, made his voyage and prolonged his journey when he was heading back to Ithaca? The act of his cruelty could be  clearly seen on the island of Cyclops’ episode when “Odysseus and his men are safely away from the island when Odysseus brags about his exploits making Polythemus hurl giant boulders almost sinking the ship” (Homer, P 114). Furthermore, pride made Odysseus a selfish guy who was not used to respect others and other opinions like “Odysseus stays with Circe for one year before his men remind him of home (Homer, p 116). Negative variables were the key-points that made him weak and less powerful, if his character was analyzed thoroughly.
The worst thing or action that can be described is the misuse of his hubris and overconfidence because that pride and confidence motivated him to act like a cruel person and to do worst actions and wrongdoings without respecting other’s opinion and feelings e.g. when the Cyclops sets off was not so much tactful taunting by him about the feud between the Poseidon and Odysseus. The reason was Odysseus’s hubris because he wanted to get the success of besting this monster. Action and decision caused the untimely death of all of his companions and allies of his journey (Lattimore, P 101)
Although there are many enemies of Odysseus, but the major and most important foe was Poseidon that insisted him to pass the superficial and unbelievable test.  Immortal curse of relentless Poseidon that had to be faced by Odysseus was because of his offends against Poseidon by blinding the Poseidon son Polyphemos. Opposition can’t be avoided because the offended act by Odysseus and the immortal and superficial characteristics of Poseidon (as described by the author). (Theliteraturenetwork)
The comparison of the Odysseus with modern film hero is somewhat difficult. If we compare Odysseus characters with the new movies “The10,000 BC” and its hero D'Leh, so one thing seems to be common that is enthusiasm, to achieve the target. In the movie, the Hero D'Leh travelled from one piece of land to another piece of land just to find his target that was his loved one. He faced the unbelievable challenges from wild animals, foes and deadly worriers. He faced all of this challenges just on the basis of enthusiasm, the enthusiasm to recover his lover from the aliens. The same passion we can see in the of Odysseus’s character that has the passion to face the challenges by doing right decision on the right time with the help of the power of wisdom that makes him a leader and arbitrator to cope the situations accordingly.

h it � r s �ݸ � n liters, that is over half of global exports. By 2013, utilization of ethanol in Brazil is expected to twice and international ethanol trade could be rises by 25-fold till 2020.
“If these calculations are correct, Brazil will need $90 billion of investment in new mills, plus $2 billion for pipelines, railways and storage. It already has 357 mills and is planning another 136 at a cost of $14.5 billion, according to Datagro, an industry consultancy. The investors are mostly Brazilian, but also include Louis Dreyfus and Tereos of France and Cargill of the United States. If anything there is an excess of enthusiasm. A lot of money is chasing too few opportunities, worries”  (Economist , 2007)
Moreover, the importance of Brazilian natural resources could be analyzed in such a way that, IF BRAZIL vanished from the earth, the rest of world would most likely miss its Amazon rainforest that is one of the world’s principal carbon dioxide’s reservoirs, the prime greenhouse gas as well as a rain factory for whole South American region and a key catalyst of the global weather. (Economist, 2007)
China that is also rich in natural resources such as oil, gas, coal and different type of metals but Chine itself is the big consumer of natural resources and it burgeoning consumption has pushed the prices of fuels, metals and grains to new heights over the last year.
Chinese companies will unavoidably in fierce competition of natural resources with Western ones. For the majority part, however, they do not function very divergently from their peers. To the degree that government of China subsidizes production of oil that assists to bring down the price for everybody else. As the biggest consumer of varieties of commodities, China obviously wants to make sure a stable supply of them to keep its economy operation smoothly but the problem is that commodities markets are worldwide, and the jeopardy of any one customer cornering supplies, or protecting them at an inferior price is insignificant.
The most horrible fallout from quest for natural resources will be observed not in the countries they arrive from, nor in the countries that are rivaling for supplies, but in China itself. Over the past years the quantity of raw materials it consumes per unit of output has increased dramatically.  In particular, China has gone from saver to gourmand in the energy utilization, and is now it is struggling to go on a diet. That has comprised with huge imports of oil, gas and coal etc.
Because of its heavy consumption of natural resources China is currently facing the number of environmental issues such as Acid rain from coal power plants that are decreasing agricultural outputs. Global warming, which is nourished by their fumes is making all these issues even worse. These environmental issues and heavy consumption of natural resources would finally make China a less wealthy and more unbalanced place. (Economist , 2008)
According to the IEA “it will overtake America to claim the top spot in 2015. The amount of oil used by Chinese industry, along with the transport networks that feed it, is growing rapidly too. Back in 1990, China consumed just 2.4m b/d, leaving 400,000 b/d of domestic production for its oil to export. Now it guzzles over 7m b/d, about half of which it has to import. The IEA thinks that by 2030 it will gulp 16.5m b/d, of which some 13.1m b/d will have to be bought abroad. That is more than the current total output of Saudi Arabia.”     (Economist, 2008)                                    China’s escalating natural resources’ demand is an added source of worry. Because Processing the iron, timber or oil involves electricity and 80% of China’s electricity source are coal. But the sulphur that discharges from the coal’s smokestacks causes acid rain and the Soot generates pollution. In many cities, a thick covering of pollution factually blots out the sun. Moreover, The augment in metals demand during the next two decades may be similar to the whole demand from the industrialized world today. (Economist, 2008)
France is the fifth largest and wealthiest economy of the world and the 2nd biggest economy in Europe. France's economy faced recession during 2008-2009 but later and left it previous than mainly comparable economies. From September 2010, the economy of France has been strengthening constantly since the 2nd quarter of 2009.
France is also rich in different type of Natural resources such as zinc, bauxite, fish, timber, Coal, iron ore and potash. France is also famous because of its Fragrance that is the ultimate reformed output of natural resource obviously, flowers. This fragrance industry is the ultimate evidence of converting the natural resources into profitable business but the point that should be noticed that 78.1% of electricity is produced in France by nuclear power generation that is expensive one if compare with the ethanol.
Therefore because of its above mentioned issues France needs to introduce pragmatic reforms, In perspective of recovering the economy and cop the largely growing number of jobless. Failure means lack of prosperity that will also weaken the France capability to face its principal social challenges: integration of religious and ethnic minorities. (Economist, 2006)
After discussing about the economies and natural resources, following are the charts that are projecting the unemployment rate. If these charts are analyzed, it is cleared that in Brazil the unemployment rate is following the consequently downward trend as compared with other economies in discussion that is the clear evidence of its economic stability because low unemployment rate is the indicator of improved GDP. Although, China is also projecting some good picture but it is not as much promising as the Brazil has.


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