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October 22, 2012

Essay on The Parthenon


The Parthenon
Introduction
In this paper, the observation and analysis of the Ancient Greek temples is discussed on the perspective of its design, architecture, shape, size and texture etc. Furthermore, for comparison the feature of “The Parthenon”   is compared with another ancient Greek temple like The Temple of Aphaia at Aeginea.
The Parthenon
The Parthenon is an ancient Greek temple in the Athenian Acropolis located in the Greece. The temple was constructed during the time period of 447 BCE and 438 BCE. The temple is the fantastic piece of art that covered each and every aspect of ancient art and designing pattern. The Parthenon was the most important building that was generally considered as the development culmination of the Doric order. (Venieri, 2010)
The Parthenon is the unique combination of Greek art and its decorative sculptures that portrays the artistic mind of the Greeks people who constructed that type of art and sculptures that become the identity of the Greece. The Parthenon is considered as the permanent sign of Ancient Greece and its Athenian democracy.
Greeks were very much enthusiastic to build the artistic and unique architectures. They built a variety of building and structures that are the symbols of their creative unique skills and vision e.g. The Heraion, Temple of Aphaia, Temple of Apollo and Temple of Athena etc
Things that were common in ancient Greek architectures were the Cella (or naos), Peristyle, Peripteral, Intercolumniation, Stereobate, Entasis, Echinus, Abacus, Entablature, Architrave, Frieze, Triglyph, Metope, Cornice, Pediment and Orders. All those word and terms are basically the Jargons, to have more understanding about it you may follow the reference at end. (Early Greek Architecture, 2010)
The Parthenon dimensions
“The base dimensions the Parthenon are 69.5 meters by 30.9 metres (228.0 x 101.4 ft). The cella was 29.8 metres long by 19.2 meters wide (97.8 x 63.0 ft), with internal colonnades in two tiers, necessary to support the top. On the outer side, the Doric columns measure 1.9 metres (6.2 ft) in diameter and are 10.4 metres (34.1 ft) high. The corner columns are slightly larger in diameter. The Parthenon had 46 outer pillars and 19 inner pillars in total. The stylobate has an upward curvature towards its centre of 60 millimetres (2.36 in) on the east and west ends, and of 110 millimetres (4.33 in) on the sides. The roof was covered with large overlapping marble tiles known as imbrices and tegulae.” (Parthenon, 2010)
The Creativity
The Parthenon is the Doric temple of octostyle with the feature of Ionic architecture. There were a number of sculptures inside the Parthenon like Athena Parthenos that was sculpted by Phidias and dedicated during the time period of 439 and 438 BCs. The Parthenon was embellished with high quality colored, decorative and artistic stone work. Although the construction was continued till the beginning of the war in 432 BC, that is also known as War of Peloponnesian. There are varieties of Doric styles decoration and on the frieze over the external colonnade and of Ionic frieze in the region of the higher portion of the Cella’s walls. The richness of decorative work all over the temple, especially on the frieze and metope was the catalyst to convert the temple into a piece of art, moreover the unique treasure of art.
As discussed earlier, the temple of Doric styles has almost the same characteristics, if the designing of Parthenon is compared with other Doric temples like Temple of Aphaias for comparing the structure and art work so it is obvious that the Greek Designers had highly artistic sense about the architecture building, designing and deco-rationing.
For awareness, let have some briefing about the Temple of Aphaias. This Geek Temple was constructed within the boundary of sanctuary complex that is located in the Gulf of Saronic. It was constructed on approximately 160 meters peak on the eastern side of the island (the Aigina) approx thirteen kilometer east from the main port of Greece by road.
If the designing and structure is compared with the Parthenon, this temple of Aphaias has another marvelous treasure of the ancient Greek art. It is noticeable that the Aphaias and the Parthenon’s designing and structure seems to be followed the same principal on the perspective of art, texture, shape, lining, designing and use of variety of colors.
Because it is analyzed that in the temple of Aphaias, preserve numerous sketching of a highly complex and artistic painting and color schemes that provide the array of study not only for art and painting lovers but also color cautious peoples. (Tarbell, 2010)
Conclusion
The above analysis revealed that the art, the architecture, the designing that is used in the Ancient Greek temples especially in the Doric styles temples, are marvelous and somewhat similar to all that type of temples. As far as the above analysis concern that was focused on the Parthenon and temple of Aphaias, one thing is obvious that is the Greek People are highly artistic and creative in nature, their creativity was the legend of its type and now the catalyst to provide the learning opportunities and unique dimensions to the art enthusiastic and learners.



factor � r �ݸ � th American region and a key catalyst of the global weather. (Economist, 2007)
China that is also rich in natural resources such as oil, gas, coal and different type of metals but Chine itself is the big consumer of natural resources and it burgeoning consumption has pushed the prices of fuels, metals and grains to new heights over the last year.
Chinese companies will unavoidably in fierce competition of natural resources with Western ones. For the majority part, however, they do not function very divergently from their peers. To the degree that government of China subsidizes production of oil that assists to bring down the price for everybody else. As the biggest consumer of varieties of commodities, China obviously wants to make sure a stable supply of them to keep its economy operation smoothly but the problem is that commodities markets are worldwide, and the jeopardy of any one customer cornering supplies, or protecting them at an inferior price is insignificant.
The most horrible fallout from quest for natural resources will be observed not in the countries they arrive from, nor in the countries that are rivaling for supplies, but in China itself. Over the past years the quantity of raw materials it consumes per unit of output has increased dramatically.  In particular, China has gone from saver to gourmand in the energy utilization, and is now it is struggling to go on a diet. That has comprised with huge imports of oil, gas and coal etc.
Because of its heavy consumption of natural resources China is currently facing the number of environmental issues such as Acid rain from coal power plants that are decreasing agricultural outputs. Global warming, which is nourished by their fumes is making all these issues even worse. These environmental issues and heavy consumption of natural resources would finally make China a less wealthy and more unbalanced place. (Economist , 2008)
According to the IEA “it will overtake America to claim the top spot in 2015. The amount of oil used by Chinese industry, along with the transport networks that feed it, is growing rapidly too. Back in 1990, China consumed just 2.4m b/d, leaving 400,000 b/d of domestic production for its oil to export. Now it guzzles over 7m b/d, about half of which it has to import. The IEA thinks that by 2030 it will gulp 16.5m b/d, of which some 13.1m b/d will have to be bought abroad. That is more than the current total output of Saudi Arabia.”     (Economist, 2008)                                    China’s escalating natural resources’ demand is an added source of worry. Because Processing the iron, timber or oil involves electricity and 80% of China’s electricity source are coal. But the sulphur that discharges from the coal’s smokestacks causes acid rain and the Soot generates pollution. In many cities, a thick covering of pollution factually blots out the sun. Moreover, The augment in metals demand during the next two decades may be similar to the whole demand from the industrialized world today. (Economist, 2008)
France is the fifth largest and wealthiest economy of the world and the 2nd biggest economy in Europe. France's economy faced recession during 2008-2009 but later and left it previous than mainly comparable economies. From September 2010, the economy of France has been strengthening constantly since the 2nd quarter of 2009.
France is also rich in different type of Natural resources such as zinc, bauxite, fish, timber, Coal, iron ore and potash. France is also famous because of its Fragrance that is the ultimate reformed output of natural resource obviously, flowers. This fragrance industry is the ultimate evidence of converting the natural resources into profitable business but the point that should be noticed that 78.1% of electricity is produced in France by nuclear power generation that is expensive one if compare with the ethanol.
Therefore because of its above mentioned issues France needs to introduce pragmatic reforms, In perspective of recovering the economy and cop the largely growing number of jobless. Failure means lack of prosperity that will also weaken the France capability to face its principal social challenges: integration of religious and ethnic minorities. (Economist, 2006)
After discussing about the economies and natural resources, following are the charts that are projecting the unemployment rate. If these charts are analyzed, it is cleared that in Brazil the unemployment rate is following the consequently downward trend as compared with other economies in discussion that is the clear evidence of its economic stability because low unemployment rate is the indicator of improved GDP. Although, China is also projecting some good picture but it is not as much promising as the Brazil has.

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