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October 22, 2012

Essay Paper on Natural Resources in Brazil


The Importance of Natural Resources and Why Brazil is Among the Leading Countries
Introduction
Natural resources are the elements that are found naturally and useful. Natural resources include fuels, oil, natural gas, materials and timber. Natural resources could be renewable or non-renewable. Renewable are those resources that are substituted in nature e.g. animals plants and forests. Non-renewable are those resources that exist in set/limited/calculated amounts e.g. fossil fuels, coal etc
Discussion
Natural resources are playing a key role to support and enhance the economy. As far as the Brazil is concerned,  It is rich in natural resources and the new discovery(s) further fueling its growth and development towards the prosperous economy and future.
Brazil is rich in the following natural resources such as: Metal Products, Fertilizer, Petrochemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Foodstuffs, Textiles, Iron and Steel, Chemicals, Consumer Goods, Plastics, Shipbuilding, Machinery, Vehicles, Clothing, Paper Products, Wood Products and Cement.
In late 2007, on the southeastern coast of Brazil the world’s biggest deep-water oil field was discovered. According to the estimate, this oil field is rich with five billion to eight billion barrels of natural gas and crude oil. This discovery of Brazil is the buzzword among the major energy exporters, and has given development structure to their pre-expanding economy. Now the Brazilian currency is stronger (rising 34% against the dollar, 2009), investment is mounting (foreign direct investment was 30%, 2009) and both are now constructed upon a firm foundation.
This healthy statistics is the evidence that natural resources play a major role in the development and economy impetus. It should be remembered that natural resources are the main catalyst to construct and distract the local and foreign investment both but the other hand, Brazilians are very much concern about their commodity dependency. Because “Brazil’s success in selling raw materials and other basic products pushes up the real, which makes other Brazilian exports less competitive and exposes industry to cheap imports, especially from China. This is leading to talk of deindustrialization and “Dutch disease”. We’re competitive where nature has helped.” (Economist , 2007)
So far there is slight evidence of extensive deindustrialization. The exports share that are  based on natural resources raise between 1989 and 2005, but noticeably half of the profit came from petroleum and making of medium & high technology goods that also augmented their shares somewhat.
According to the BNDES (national development bank) expressed that there was no wide-ranging shift in production to those industries that are based upon natural-resources. Another belated realization that fossil fuels overheat the earth, are managed by dodgy regimes and cost too much. In January USA President George Bush announced an USA version of “ProĆ”lcool”. He wanted to cut petrol utilization by 1/5th and has since done an agreement with President Lula to increase production and utilization of ethanol globally. (Economist , 2007)
The USA is the global largest economy. According to the CIA World Fact book, 2007 GDP is thought to 13.84 trillion US dollar. This is thrice in size of the subsequently largest economy, Japan, which has 4.4 trillion US dollar GDP. US supremacy has been wrinkled by the formation of the European Union common market, and by the speedy growth of China, which is forecasted to outdo the US within 30 years.
The key natural resources of USA are Coal, oil and timber. Surprisingly, the key source of energy/electricity is the fossil fuel that is the expensive way but the interesting point is that It will take a long time for any other country to follow Brazil, where ethanol already used 40% as fuel by automobiles. Furthermore, The United States stressed on generating most of its ethanol from locally-grown maize, which is comparatively more expensive than Brazil’s cane-based ethanol and burns up almost seven times additional fossil fuel per unit of power produced.
Besides that no any other country can compete the distribution network of Brazil, in Short-term ethanol will be typically a stabilizer to fuel not the main element. Brazil now produces 18 billion liters of ethanol per year, out which it exports 4 billion liters, that is over half of global exports. By 2013, utilization of ethanol in Brazil is expected to twice and international ethanol trade could be rises by 25-fold till 2020.
“If these calculations are correct, Brazil will need $90 billion of investment in new mills, plus $2 billion for pipelines, railways and storage. It already has 357 mills and is planning another 136 at a cost of $14.5 billion, according to Datagro, an industry consultancy. The investors are mostly Brazilian, but also include Louis Dreyfus and Tereos of France and Cargill of the United States. If anything there is an excess of enthusiasm. A lot of money is chasing too few opportunities, worries”  (Economist , 2007)
Moreover, the importance of Brazilian natural resources could be analyzed in such a way that, IF BRAZIL vanished from the earth, the rest of world would most likely miss its Amazon rainforest that is one of the world’s principal carbon dioxide’s reservoirs, the prime greenhouse gas as well as a rain factory for whole South American region and a key catalyst of the global weather. (Economist, 2007)
China that is also rich in natural resources such as oil, gas, coal and different type of metals but Chine itself is the big consumer of natural resources and it burgeoning consumption has pushed the prices of fuels, metals and grains to new heights over the last year.
Chinese companies will unavoidably in fierce competition of natural resources with Western ones. For the majority part, however, they do not function very divergently from their peers. To the degree that government of China subsidizes production of oil that assists to bring down the price for everybody else. As the biggest consumer of varieties of commodities, China obviously wants to make sure a stable supply of them to keep its economy operation smoothly but the problem is that commodities markets are worldwide, and the jeopardy of any one customer cornering supplies, or protecting them at an inferior price is insignificant.
The most horrible fallout from quest for natural resources will be observed not in the countries they arrive from, nor in the countries that are rivaling for supplies, but in China itself. Over the past years the quantity of raw materials it consumes per unit of output has increased dramatically.  In particular, China has gone from saver to gourmand in the energy utilization, and is now it is struggling to go on a diet. That has comprised with huge imports of oil, gas and coal etc.
Because of its heavy consumption of natural resources China is currently facing the number of environmental issues such as Acid rain from coal power plants that are decreasing agricultural outputs. Global warming, which is nourished by their fumes is making all these issues even worse. These environmental issues and heavy consumption of natural resources would finally make China a less wealthy and more unbalanced place. (Economist , 2008)
According to the IEA “it will overtake America to claim the top spot in 2015. The amount of oil used by Chinese industry, along with the transport networks that feed it, is growing rapidly too. Back in 1990, China consumed just 2.4m b/d, leaving 400,000 b/d of domestic production for its oil to export. Now it guzzles over 7m b/d, about half of which it has to import. The IEA thinks that by 2030 it will gulp 16.5m b/d, of which some 13.1m b/d will have to be bought abroad. That is more than the current total output of Saudi Arabia.”     (Economist, 2008)                                    China’s escalating natural resources’ demand is an added source of worry. Because Processing the iron, timber or oil involves electricity and 80% of China’s electricity source are coal. But the sulphur that discharges from the coal’s smokestacks causes acid rain and the Soot generates pollution. In many cities, a thick covering of pollution factually blots out the sun. Moreover, The augment in metals demand during the next two decades may be similar to the whole demand from the industrialized world today. (Economist, 2008)
France is the fifth largest and wealthiest economy of the world and the 2nd biggest economy in Europe. France's economy faced recession during 2008-2009 but later and left it previous than mainly comparable economies. From September 2010, the economy of France has been strengthening constantly since the 2nd quarter of 2009.
France is also rich in different type of Natural resources such as zinc, bauxite, fish, timber, Coal, iron ore and potash. France is also famous because of its Fragrance that is the ultimate reformed output of natural resource obviously, flowers. This fragrance industry is the ultimate evidence of converting the natural resources into profitable business but the point that should be noticed that 78.1% of electricity is produced in France by nuclear power generation that is expensive one if compare with the ethanol.
Therefore because of its above mentioned issues France needs to introduce pragmatic reforms, In perspective of recovering the economy and cop the largely growing number of jobless. Failure means lack of prosperity that will also weaken the France capability to face its principal social challenges: integration of religious and ethnic minorities. (Economist, 2006)
After discussing about the economies and natural resources, following are the charts that are projecting the unemployment rate. If these charts are analyzed, it is cleared that in Brazil the unemployment rate is following the consequently downward trend as compared with other economies in discussion that is the clear evidence of its economic stability because low unemployment rate is the indicator of improved GDP. Although, China is also projecting some good picture but it is not as much promising as the Brazil has.
Art integration is significant because it transfers the responsibility from the teachers to the students. Students become more concerned in their learning and gain experiences (in following pages there are useful discussion about the experience). Arts integration provides the opportunity to the students to “interpret content in ways that were meaningful to them” (Lynch, 2007).
According to the study, art integration plays a key role in math, science, social studies, reading, writing and other areas. Through this integration, creativity is fostered with self-awareness and having empathy toward others. Because the art integration provide the opportunity to express the ideas openly that is the outcome of self-confidence that the ideas will be shared and is being shared, will take as a piece of information that will further be discussed not only will be criticized. This aspect as I realized during the practice is the catalyst to improve the self-awareness that how much improvement is needed with receptivity to accept other argument and ideas. The study highlights the number of ways in which the arts grow the behavioral and cognitive skills that are inevitable for success. (Lipe, 2010)
Conclusion
The above mentioned discussion and research give us strong evidences that use of art either in term of playing, dramatization or even something else has powerful effects in the process of human development, because children and the human beings their-selves are very much curious to touch and experiment the things and art is the tool that fulfill this desire. One very simple thing, if we go to the zoo, doesn’t it our curiosity to touch the elephant or any other animals, the simple question with simple answer that all we know.

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