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October 25, 2012

Essay Paper on Social Networking

Social Networking
The American sociologist Stanley Milgram once described the "small world phenomenon" by showing that there is an average of six intermediaries between two random people on the planet. Inspired by this insight almost poetic and boosted by the current technology, "social networks" were introduced in March 2003. Since then, they continue to occupy the front of the media scene. Social networking now enjoys its position as having enormous potential for sociability of individuals, as a connection.
A social network is a set of social identities such as individuals or organizations linked together by bonds created during social interactions. It is represented by a structure or a dynamic form of social grouping. Social networks can be created and strategically to expand personal communication.  
Social networking refers to all the resources used to link individuals or legal entities between them. A social network is geared towards Web 2.0, that is to say, it allows its visitors to be active participants in the network, and they no longer remain visitors of static pages.
In social network communities, initially the founder sends out messages inviting members of their own personal network to join the site. New members repeat the process, increasing the number of members and links in the network.[1] The sites then offer features such as automatic updating address book, view personal profiles, the ability to form new links through introductory services, and other forms of online social connections.
Social networks can also be organized around business connections, as in the case of LinkedIn and Viadeo, around events (concerts, exhibitions ...) causes or interests (political left as Hope or Nethics ) as Oliceo, cultural (films, books, paintings) as Flixster. Sometimes sites combine several methods of networking that combines cultural and personal networking.
The crossbreeding of social networking is an approach to social networking that combines both offline elements (the face-to-face) and online. MySpace, for example, is built around independent music and videos, and Facebook mirrors a community of scholars. The latest social networking on the Internet have focused more on specific subjects such as art, sports, cars, games such as poker, dog owners, and even cosmetic surgery.
Most social networks on the Internet are public, allowing anyone to join. Organizations, such as large companies, also have access to private social networking programs, known as Enterprise Relationship Management. They install these programs on their own servers and allow employees to share their networks of contacts and relationships with individuals and local companies.
The establishment of a social network can be linked with Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The combination of a set of social entities is a result of needs expressed by the individual himself.[2]
Social networking gives expression to personal achievement. Each user expresses himself or herself through their user profile, enriched content. It discloses personal information that allows other users to recognize, or to find out.
Social network caters to the need of socialization. Users can enter into relationship with each other directly or through a mutual acquaintance. The relationship is generally evidenced by a list of friends or contacts, public or private. The user may also enter into a relationship with brands, artists, venues, etc. [3]
The user has at his disposal a wide variety of tools for communicating (instant messaging, dedication / guestbook on the profile of a contact, content sharing, and forums). Communication can be enhanced by site (invitations to events, calendar sharing, etc.)
This virtual world allows so many interactions between users, thus constituting social networking.
A recent development of social networking is the integration of the element of the contract, known as the social market. Social networking has also had great influence in the U.S. presidential election and encourages the development of social networks to political vocation.
Online social networks like MySpace, Facebook, and Bebo are ubiquitous and young and mature people alike now spend much of their time using it to communicate with the world
outside. The onset of social network sites has influenced the public and personal lives of individual in almost society.
However, the social network has also emerged as a source of nuisance as it has blurred the line between social and personal life. With social network strongly embedded, one can hardly give a separate definition of the concept of "public life", nor that of "private life."
Teens today grow up in a society which is in constant turmoil because of landslides
between public and private spheres. New technologies are changing the infrastructure based on
social exchange and dissemination of information. Young easily accommodate these
changes, most adults are panicking.
This puts educators in a peculiar situation of duress. The most conservative of them see the work of the devil in social technologies. According to them, the revolution of social network is synonymous with the destruction and corruption of youth. 
Around the world, teenagers enroll on online social networks like MySpace, Facebook and Bebo. Once connected to one of these systems are being asked to create a profile that can be described as their digital portrait.  Using text, image, video, audio, with links, questionnaires, tests, teens make up a profile that is the representation of the image they have of themselves. All these profiles are linked and shared through friends lists. In return, participants may designate other users of the site as their "friends." If the nominee accepts and validates the relationship friendly, a photo of each is displayed on the profile of the other. [4]
The list of "friends" goes beyond a simple inventory of strong ties (the ones usually referred by friendships). In addition, the functionality of the site allows members to establish what they think as their audience - that is closer to those they imagine to be in the same world they do.
Profiles and friends lists are the two major features of social networks. The
third most important is the function of public review ("Testimony", "Comments"
"Billboard"). This feature allows site members to file comments on profiles of their "friends."
Comments are prominently displayed and are visible to everyone who has an access to the profiles. These three features - profiles, friend lists, comments - is the basic fabric of social networking sites even if some of them offer additional functions. Social networks allow their visitors to browse a "friend" to another and correspond with anyone with a visible profile.
Online social networks are the new generation of "public spheres in infrastructure media "such as public environments where participants are related through media. In many respects, the mediated public spheres are close to spheres.
 Public non-publicized that we know well, such as cafes, shopping arcades, the
City squares and gardens, car parks of supermarkets.
Teens rendezvous with their
friends. Usually other people also attend and will be invited to participate in rally if they are worthy of interest, or ignored otherwise.
Public spaces play many roles in our social life - they allow people to donate meaning to the codes that govern public life, learn to speak, understand the reactions their communications. This helps to achieve (make real) certain actions and behavior by fact that witnesses acknowledge the existence of public (Arendt 1998). Online social networks are a different type, another form of public space. They have a well-structured infrastructure and media coverage (based on the medium) and the public sphere roles on social networking sites are quite similar in our daily lives.
Journalists, lawyers, teachers and people belonging to all walks of life have started make full use of social networks. Members of social networks will imagine their audience and address it by following the codes that they believe to be largely accepted. The difference is that that journalists are trying to deliver a message carefully crafted to appeal to a hearing  targeted, while teens chattering all the time, do their show, and are there to hang out with those they call their friends.
The benefits of social network from the standpoint of marketing are numerous. The growing popularity of social networks on the Web has paved the way for new marketing models leaving the traditional modes less effective. Traditional marketing established for over a century in the world have undergone massive change.  The question of who controls the message is a central concern
expressed by many marketing experts.
How to communicate effectively
in a world where individuals are now involved in the exchange Information and opinions on goods and services offered by companies? The customers can now influence the adoption of consumer behavior,
as well as help to grow or destroy the marketing efforts products by marketing professionals. This research has two objectives:  to discover the extent of adoption of social networks as tools of communication and, secondly, to anticipate the trends in communications.
The central concern has a bearing on all socio-economic spheres. Customers can indeed influence the adoption of political ideas, even behaviors, as well as help to grow or to destroy the efforts of marketing of products by marketing professionals.
In parallel with general social networks like Facebook, a host of specialized networks have also been developed each corresponding to a given target grouping purposes or interests. By joining a social network, one can meet the need membership of an individual to a community that shares its interests, even its language, with which it has affinities.
It also responds to the need recognized by members of his community.
According to sociologist
Pierre Merckle, social networks could be "a new sociological paradigm, a" third way "theory between holism and sociological individualism.[5]
Insofar as one hand we are witnessing a rise of individualism and secondly everyone has a strong need
belonging to one or more communities to interact and exchange, knowing that anything can have value
greater than the sum of its parts.
Maslow’s theory of need can also be applied to social networking. Individuals who spend time on social networks often look for a fulfillment of unmet needs satiated in their real lives. Individuals seek in their lives to satisfy the needs of various levels, from physiological needs (eating, sleeping, drinking) until more complex needs are accomplished. The use of social networks allows individuals to respond clearly some of them, particularly the needs of belonging (being part of a group, club) and recognition (by his friends, by having as many friends possible). Networks with extended features such as Facebook also respond to a need for creativity, the user trying to be as creative as possible in his or her messages, or in presenting their own profile, that or on the picture or described through the information. [6]
Recognition on social networks can sometimes be valued. A young Englishman of 18, Eiso Kant, has invented a virtual currency, the Twollars (, to enforce good information on Twitter. This allows a user to a thank tweet whose informational value is high. It can also allow Twollars to transfer the humanitarian actions. Thus, its members will be recognized worldwide through Twitter, like buyers and sellers on eBay are done using the notation after each transaction on the site.
Although the need for belonging and recognition is present in everyone, some spend more time than others to post their comments on the networks social. Several studies have shown the existence of 5% active contributors, of which 1% produce two thirds of the content.[7] Even if the press was astonished at this phenomenon and the Harvard Business Review has cleverly highlighted a social network like Twitter did was not finally one, that finding is not new. Research conducted for several years in marketing virtual communities shows that a small core of Internet contributes regularly to feed the contents of communities and that most members are "tourists who from time to time inquire or post a
comment. When analyzing the links between individuals in networks, there are traditional social structures. These virtual communities have their effect on hierarchy, with their elders, their contributors, and their novices. The novelty lies in the possibility for minorities to exist and to carve out a reputation through simple tools.
A social network can be in touch with friends and relationships, helpful in finding the lost people, to new knowledge based on affinities or interests  common, knowing your contacts (via the newsfeed). The sharing of data (information, photos, videos, etc.) can also be a means (network meetings) or an end (networks in which the user is active) with a view to sharing. Personal social networks also allow a better understanding of self through interactions with contacts. On Facebook, the wall is the public space on which any authorized user can display a message.
Participation in clubs for discussion of topics interest to the Internet to share research and exchange experiences can also materialized through it. These discussion clubs also exist on social networks enterprise, the purpose being more leisure but the objectives sharing the remaining neighbors.


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