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October 31, 2012

Revolutionary Nationalism in Middle East Essay

Revolutionary Nationalism in Middle East
If the geography and the number of states that collectively constitute are analyzed it will be a surprise that only a handful of these states who have their political system formed on the rudimentary injunctions of democracy. Almost all of them are kingdoms and monarchies providing a single man the power and authority to decide and promulgate laws that maintain a stable existence of the throne without much opposition.
However on the flip side there are also countries like Turkey, Iran and Egypt which have proved to be an exception to this existing status quo. During the course of this discussion we will be looking the ways in which nationalism gained momentum in these countries in the aftermath of events that engulfed the world after the end of the First World War. (Gelvin, 2008)
Revolutions in Iran, Turkey and Egypt
One of the most prominent nationalist movements that sparked during the First World War was in Turkey which was earlier ruled by the Ottoman Empire. It is worth mentioning here that the Ottoman Empire has always had symbolic importance for Muslims all over the world and when British forces decided to invade Turkey due to its association of military loyalty with Germany and its allies, the entire scenario sparked massive opposition and resentment for the British.
However the entire situation took an interesting and capricious twist when Mustafa Kemal Ataturk decided to overthrow the ancient monarchy by paving way for the establishment of a democratic form of government. More interesting was that the change in the form of governance was backed and whole-heartedly welcomed by the people of Turkey themselves. (Gelvin, 2008)
During World War 1 the state of Iran decided to adopt a neutral approach, but despite of such non-resistance Iran turned out to be a battleground Russian, Turkish, and British troops. After the war Britain had dominant influence in Iran in almost all government departments. The British tried to maximize their influence and hegemony and assertion in the country by means of an Anglo-Persian agreement in 1919 which was out rightly rejected by the religious groups in Iran and subsequently generated opposition against British rule in the form of a nationalist movement aimed for the expulsion of the British from the country which took place Persian Cossack Brigade officer Reza Khan in support with Sayyid Zia ad Din Tabatabai gained control of Tehran commencing a new phase of revolution in the history of Iran. (Wars of the World, 2010)
Egyptian nationalism and revolution in 1919 was also in against the rising British influence and control of Egyptian resources. The movement initiated through the use of diplomatic channels but with the passage of time when British did not pay heed to the rising opposition and demands of the delegation headed by Saad Zaghlul of losing control of the Suez Canal which was under British control, massive and uncontrolled protests engulfed the country in which people from all walks of life participated proactively.  Within a few days British realized that they could not the increasingly volatile situation and it was finally after such prolonged and violent nature protests by the people of Egypt that led to the revolution of 1919 in the country providing it the autonomy and control over its resources. (US, Source Library, N/A)

In each revolution that took in each of the countries that we have discussed, it is easily observable that any revolution or nationalist movement for its success needs to gain adequate public support which are motivated enough to support the agenda and cause even in the most crucial times.
The only possible difference that can be pinpointed is that intensity and volume of participation shown by people, when categorized it can be said to be the highest in case of Egypt and lowest in case of Iran, but more important thing to consider is that the people of all these countries stood for a just cause that they believed could help in giving a new life to their nation.

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Proponents of this type of technology claim that with the widespread usage of bio fuels and diesel oil prices would be able to maintain a stable level and hence countries that are dependent upon oil resources will be able to make their standing and would also be in a position to maintain their stable economic standing irrespective of the economic fluctuations in oil prices.
Moreover with the help of bio fuels and diesel environment friendly and renewable sources of energy can be explored through the help of which the level of pollution rising all over the world will be able to come to a manageable level, thus leading to a reduction in the percentage of emission of harmful gases in the environment.
Moreover with the help and availability of cheap fuels the ultimate cost and expense related to the transportation of different kinds of vehicles will also come within an affordable and economic range for a large number of consumers and people all over the world. (Richard, 2009)
One key question that is raised by the opponents of the biodiesel and fuel technology is in relation to the sustainability of this form of energy. At present, the most important channels of bio fuels are bioethanol from corn United States, but also Hungary, or wheat being used European Union, beet or cane sugar. Energy efficiency, environmental balance and the greenhouse effect bio fuels are questionable. In addition, various calculations differ widely, which allows all parties to cite the results appropriate to their causes.
The only ethanol plant whose efficiency and low production costs make it profitable, ethanol is sugar cane produced in Brazil, but with unacceptable social and environmental costs. Here we come to the perverse phenomenon of supporting a system that involves cutting the virgin forest for monoculture plantations because of EU objectives of reducing greenhouse gases. In addition, this production moves entire communities from their land previously used for food production.
It is also questionable to change the energy dependence of America on fossil fueled for a biomass dependence on imports from developing countries said. The European cattle eat already imported soya beans; add it now imports oil from rapeseed, which increased by 10 in one year.
As for European agriculture, the production of ethanol raises the temptation to fix the problem of European grain surpluses without making structural reforms on the production system by considering the grain sources of energy rather than food.
In Hungary, where cereal production has a structural surplus of 2-2.5 million tons, this argument weighs particularly heavily on public debate. It is hoped that the competition between food and energy use will increase the price of cereals and benefit producers. Government programs in Hungarian rural development, it aims to respond to the doubts concerning the balance of greenhouse related to ethanol production by introducing new ethanol plants the condition that at least 50% energy used in production must be renewable. (Olan and Surya, 2009)
In conclusion it would be appropriate to say that the fate of this kind of technology and energy generation method of biodiesel and fuel still hangs in an oscillating balance in which it has become extremely difficult for governments especially of developed countries to decide which course would they take on this globally crucial issue and thus determine the subsequent direction of either peace or war in the global energy sector.


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