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December 27, 2012

Essay on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is caused due to the attention problems to the children of age seven years or younger. ADHD is actually a neurobehavioral development disorder (Zwi, Ramchandani & Joughin, 2000).  It is a common development disorder which is reported among 3 to 5 percent of children all over the world (Nair et al., 2006) and 2 to 16 percent among school going aged children (Rader, McCauley & Callen, 2009). This disorder continuous to create problem for 30 to 50 percent of the victims in their adulthood also (Elia, Ambrosini & Rapoport, 1999). According to the statistics, almost 4.7 percent of American adults have to live with ADHD (Gentile, 2004). It is also revealed through research that boys are more prone to this disorder than girls and ADHD found four times more in boys as compared to girls (Singh, 2008).
ADHD can be classified as a disruptive behavior disorder with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and antisocial disorder. ADHD patient can either predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, predominantly inattentive or combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive.
Symptoms of ADHD
It is not at all easy to determine the symptoms of ADHD; however, the study of different patients of ADHD shows that different subtypes of ADHD have the following signs and symptoms:
Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive
·         Non stop talking and playing with everything around
·         Facing difficulty in sitting still at school or at home
Predominantly inattentive
·         Forgetting things easily and can be distracted from an activity very easily
·         Cannot focus properly
·         Facing difficulty in learning new things
·         Not very attentive
·         Facing difficulty in following instructions etc
Problems of ADHD
ADHD may cause or accompany with problems like anxiety and depression in both children and adults. Social anxiety comes in two varieties. The state of social anxiety is a momentary experience that flares up at a certain time or in a certain place, and then passes. The trait of social anxiety is more enduring: a characteristic of certain individuals that persists over time and across situations. For those chronically afflicted, their anxiety locks them into increasingly unpleasant social interactions. Such individuals tend to reject other people, perhaps because they fear being rejected themselves. They are withdrawn and ineffective in social interactions, perhaps because they perceive negative reactions even where there are none. In fact, however, other people often do react negatively to interactions with socially anxious individuals.
            Depression is a psychological disorder characterized by negative moods, low esteem, pessimism, lack of initiative, and slowed thought process. Although there are numerous influences on depression, social psychologists have paid particular attention to the role of cognitive factors. Researchers believed that depression is caused due to the exposure to uncontrollable, aversive stimulation. They proposed that organisms exposed to an uncontrollable event learn something- namely that control is not possible. Faced with this knowledge, they stop trying to exert control even in a different situation. A sense of hopelessness does appear to serve as a major link between negative life events and depression.
Treatment
            Treatment methods of ADHD may involve behavior modification, change in life style, motivation and counseling. Behavioral treatment plays the most important and effective role in ADHD management (Fabiano et al., 2009). Several psychological therapies are used to treat ADHD which include Psych-educational input, behavioral therapy, cognitive behavior theory, interpersonal psychotherapy, family therapy, parents training, school intervention etc.
Motivational interview is a technique to change or strengthen a person’s desire to change his or her behavior by stressing on factors like reasoning and desire. Most of the researchers concluded that ADHD is a psychological and personality disorder which can be treated by treating this disorder. Motivational interviews at health centers, college counseling and emergency departments would provide higher satisfaction rate and the success rate of this much higher than any other treatment.
Cognitive behavior therapy is also used to treat different cognitive behavior disorders as well as ADHD. It is a short term process of ADHD treatment which is considered a valuable therapy for such disorder. According to this therapeutic technique, people become victim of ADHD through their own behavior and feelings instead of any external cause such as people, events or situations. People are not always able to change their circumstances but they can always change their thought process and patterns.
Although different medications are also used to treat ADHD but all medications, either stimulant or non-stimulant, have their side effects. Due to this reason, medication is not recommended to treat ADHD, especially, for children (Greenhill et al., 2008)

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