Maslow’s Need-Hierarchy theory:
Maslow classified human needs into five groups. These five groups are:
1. The psychological needs
2. The security needs
3. The Social needs
4. The self-esteem needs
5. The self-actualization needs
According to Maslow that when one need is fulfilled, the next order of needs become important to an individual.
Herzberg’s Two factor theory:
This theory deals with the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of an employee. This theory suggests that there are certain factors, which bring satisfaction to the workers, and there are factors, which eliminate dissatisfaction. The factors, which eliminate dissatisfaction to the worker, may not necessarily cause satisfaction. The factors, which cause satisfaction, are known as satisfiers or motivators and the factors, which eliminate dissatisfaction as dissatisfier or hygienic factors.
Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X and Theory Y are two contrasting management theories that aim to discuss human motivation at work place (Leavitt, 1989). As opposed to Theory X according to which human beings inherently shirk work and must be controlled by the management, Theory Y assumes that people treat their work as natural and play therefore management should focus on exploring the unrealized potential and creativity of the workers. The followers of Y Theory contend that if workers are provided with favorable environment, most of them will naturally seek to offer the best they have in them at workplace. In other words, Theory X stresses the need for control of human behavior while Theory Y places a lot of emphasis on the need of self-direction and responsibility on the part of workers.
The expectancy theory of Motivation describes that motivation is dependent upon our desire to achieve something and our expectation to get it. Dr. Victor Vroom, who had presented this theory, said that motivation can be based upon the following three factors (Vroom, 1964):
· Expectancy: it is the expectation of a person to achieve something
· Instrumentality: it is the expectation of the person that performance will lead him to his desired destination
· Valence: it is the value of an outcome in the eyes of an individual
Equity theory discusses the relational satisfaction of a person depends on the fair or unfair distribution of resources (Carrell & Dittrich, 1978). Equity theory was introduced by John Stacy Adams in 1963. He described that employees are motivated by the input they bring in to the job and the rewards they received against it.
Managers can learn to say no to unacceptable work overloads, stand up to the boss, and delegate responsibility to subordinates. Requesting resources needed to remove the cause of stress often helps (Miller, 1988). Other effective behaviors are building resistance to stress through regular sleep, good eating and health habits, and discussing the stressful situation with coworkers, family, and friends.
Recent data indicate that factors under managerial control, such as performance feedback and clear job expectations, job decision latitudes, and social support, are key factors in helping subordinates cope effectively with job stress. However, each person must find his or her own strategies for coping with stress.