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June 26, 2013

Essay on Egypt

One of the oldest civilizations in the world, Egypt has formed the hub of Arab culture for over the centuries  Egypt, or the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in northwest Africa is situated on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean: the Levantine Basin. The north-east of the country consists of the Sinai Peninsula is located in Asia, however. Today, he continues to provide as a bridge between Western Europe and Arabian east, with its size and position ascertaining the country's central role in the region. Egypt is now the most populous Arab country in the world and draws its culture from Mediterranean, African and Arab influences. The Egyptians are very proud of their heritage and diverse culture that has developed into a modern united society.
The culture of modern Egypt is like any other cosmopolitan country. Egypt has an interesting mix of people from different cultural backgrounds. The modern Egypt created a distinct cultural identity, keeping intact its rich ancient cultural heritage. This combination of old and new culture makes Egypt unique and distinct.
A visit to one of the major cities of Egypt shows the influences of global culture in Egypt. Compared to other countries in the Middle East, Egypt is very advanced culturally. Tourism is one of the main generators of income for Egypt; the culture here openly invited foreign tourists. Tradition and thinking is supposed to be full of warmth towards visitors and foreigners.
Egypt's population consists mostly of Sunni Muslims and Coptic Christians. The people of both religions moderately follow their religious practices. Religious principles are quite significant in their daily lives.
Family ties are very strong in Egypt. The male citizens are not as socially influential as Egyptian women. This makes most large cities such as Cairo and Alexandria a lot safer for women than any western metropolis.
Important Values of Egypt
Islam
Islam is practiced by most of the Egyptians and plays an essential role in all aspects of society. It is an essential part of Egyptian life that influences the behavior from day to day regarding decisions on personal, political, economic and legal. In Egypt, the truth and problem solving often depend upon the faith and understanding of Islamic law. However you can see that in a business context, theoretical evidence is used more in an attempt to be objective.
Family
 Patronage, kinship and family are at the heart of Egyptian society. Family defines social status and can determine the values ​​and behaviors. In Egypt, the individual is insignificant as compared to the family or group. Therefore, the Egyptians observe a respectful attitude among parents and demonstrate a sense of responsibility to both the nuclear and the extended family at any time. Loyalty and pride of the family take utmost importance over all social relations and therefore a little nepotism is generally usual in many businesses environments and viewed positively.  
Fatalism
 The idea of fatalism is closely related to Islam, that fate is believed to be in the God's hands. This concept gives rise to a feeling of belonging and carefree recognition of the status quo. Fatalistic perspective towards life is often important in the decision-making process of many Egyptians. It also influences the notion of time in Egypt and therefore trade negotiations can take more time and should not be rushed.
Egyptian economy
The nation of Egypt developed as a unified state in about 3200 BC. In earlier times Egypt was ruled by a succession of dynasties and had seen many conquerors of Persian, Greek, Roman, Turkish and Arabic. In 1922, after a period of British occupation of Egypt gained its freedom and full sovereignty came into being. However, July 23, 1952 Colonel Nasser dislodged the monarchy and declared the country a republic later that year. Invasions also persisted, including the invasion of Anglo-French-Israeli in 1956 provoked by nationalization of the Suez Canal. Egypt was finally readmitted to the Arab League 1989. The Suez Canal was built during the reign of Ismail Khedwey in 1869 and Egypt in an important hub of transportation in the world. With tourism and exports of oil and gas, Channel continues to be a major source of revenue for Egypt. Economically, the current Government has recently revived a program of economic reform stalled in 1991 began to to reduce the size of government and increase private sector development. Consequently, a growth of the Egyptian economy has improved the competitiveness of the Egyptian market and created a new market for foreign companies.
Working practices in Egypt
It is important to make an appointment before doing business in Egypt. These should be made in advance and confirmed in writing or by telephone, about a week before the appointment, and again the day before the meeting.
Timeliness of Egyptian business culture is not considered a priority. However, even if your Egyptian business associates arrive late for an appointment, you are expected to attend the hour.
In general, business hours in Egypt vary depending on time of year. During winter, many businesses close for much of the afternoon and they reopen at some early evening hours. The regular hours are from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Sunday to Thursday. Public sector labor and services open from 9.00 to 2.00 am and close on Fridays only.
Structure and hierarchy in Egyptian companies
• The company structure is hierarchical in Egypt. Most people rank makes final decisions, but not before receiving the group consensus.
• Rank and status are essential in the structure of Egyptian companies. You'll tend to find your Egyptian colleagues for age and experience in a business environment and, therefore, it is wise to include seniors with notable titles your team.
Working relationships in Egypt
• Egyptian business people emphasize a lot on interacting and making long lasting and strong business connections a high priority. It is not unusual to have a family member or close friend in a working position where they can help you secure future appointments.
• The concept of honor governs all relationships in Egypt. Therefore, to show the respect due to others, especially those older than you and those in authority, is a duty Egyptian.
Business must do’s and don’ts
·         It is will be very important if you do learn words or at least one or a few sentences of Egyptian Arabic, such as thank you, hello, goodbye, and please. Your struggle will be much appreciated and taken as a gesture of respect.
·         It is imperative that you do wait for your Egyptian partner to start the greeting to a first meeting. As there are numerous styles of greeting in Egypt, particularly between men and women; but a handshake is the most common in the business.
·         It is important that you do make eye contact when meeting with your Egyptian business partners particularly with male colleagues. Looking at an Egyptian in the eyes is a sign of honesty and trust.
·         Don’t lead or the strength of your Egyptian counterparts to make a quick decision in will be ineffective. The pace of business in Egypt is much slower than in the West for example if patience is needed.
·         Don’t be surprised if your fellow Egyptian businessman stands very close to you during business conversations. Try not to back down if that happens because it can create the impression that you find unpleasant physical presence and therefore causes offense.
·         Don’t ask detailed questions about your family of male Egyptian Counterpart especially female members, while doing small talk. Getting information on their general welfare is generally acceptable, but further discussions would be considered personal and inappropriate
Egypt (Business)
Doing business in Egypt required some prerequisites that must be considered to have and to enjoy the win-win situation. Egypt is the country that has the majority of Muslims population with some foreign influences. Therefore, to have the business in the Egypt, it should be borne in mind that what are going to be discussed and being discussed should not harm the Egypt culture and their cultural values that are influenced by the majority of Muslim population. Therefore, one aspect that is obvious, there is no any room to promote the pork related business and to open the wine shop.
It should be remembered that Egypt is the Muslin country and religion is the top most priority among the Egyptians, therefore, before having any business talk and before to develop any business plan proper and keen considerations are highly inevitable. Furthermore, as discussed above, there is no any room to do the business that belongs to the pork, alcohol and drugs. Besides, Egyptians’ laws and regulation are very strict regarding the pornography and pornographic materials such as porn videos, taps, records, printed and electronic resources.
Egyptians are very generous to offer invitations, always bear in mind that to accept all invitations are very important because it is the norm in Egyptian society.   Besides, one should consider to repay all these invitations by arranging the dinner or lunch in the restaurants because this is the general tradition of the Egyptian society.
According to the laws and regulations, Proselytizing are prohibited, it is the highly considerable issues for the Foreigners because there are the incidence to face the punishments by the Foreigners in connection with the Proselytizing. The key aspect is that the punishments in that regards could be very strict that could lead to leave the country that will be no doubt the loss of possible profitable business venture.
In the Egypt culture, the importance of women is very high and women are subject to respect and first preference. However, ethically, socially and morally it is considered the shame practice to have talk or to have discussion with the unknown Egyptian women. Another key issue is that, offering tips to the businessmen and professional who are equal in status as compared with you may cause to serious and sever offends. Therefore, beware this type of act.
As a traveler, it should be noticed that In Egypt every religious building are not for tourism, therefore, pay attention in that regards as well. Those religious building that are for tourism purposes are classified separately, ask the travel agent or have the help of related website to prevent any confusion. For business women who are interested to have tour, should cover their heads and other bear parts of their bodies as well as should remove their shoes before entering any religious places. For business foreign women, there is no any issue to travel alone throughout the Egypt but to travel alone in the desert is not advisable. However, there is the option to call the police in case of any discrepancies.
Doing business in the Egypt is the type of challenge in the perspective to cater the cultural values of Egypt. Egyptian business men are very polite but very formal. For having the business meeting, formal suit and tie dressing is recommended. According to the sources, “Business dress is conservative, a formal suit and tie or equivalent. Women should avoid revealing clothes. Business cards are essential. Having yours translated into Arabic on one side will go down well and make you stand out. Titles are important and should be used.  A failure to do so might be perceived as arrogance. Otherwise use Ustaz or Mr followed by your counterpart's first name. 
Meetings should be arranged well in advance and confirmed nearer the time. You should aim to be punctual yourself but don't expect your counterpart to be. Meetings may well be interrupted by phone calls or other visitors. This does not signify that your business is not being taken seriously.
As in all countries in the Arab world, the establishing of a personal relationship is central to doing business. Who you know really does matter. In this region they talk about having wasta(connections). A local partner can help make contacts and cut through the red tape that is still a feature of life here.
Management style is generally top-down, with bosses making the decisions. Don't become frustrated if things take time as this is normal. Also trying to hurry things with deadlines and ultimatums is likely to work against you” ("Cultural guide to," ).
In the domain of Egyptian business, ranking is the linchpin, therefore, it is highly recommended to include the senior and experienced professionals in the team. The concept of paying respect is the part and parcel element of business culture.  Therefore, paying respect to everyone, especially to the older and senior ones is inevitable.
During the conversations with the business professionals, it is recommended to use the title of the person because it is viewed in the Egyptian business domain as the pride. If there is no any title associated with the counterparts, the use of courtesy title will be appropriate.
The initial phases of business conversations are very important because Egyptians are very cautious and prefer to do the business with the trustable partners. Therefore, to have the local representative to have arrangements in connection with the business will be the right choice. During the initial business correspondence, to exchange the small gifts will act as a catalyst to further smooth the way. However, it should be noticed that, gifts should not be expensive because it may cause of embarrassments.  Besides, to confirm the next appointment in the ending session of meetings should be the part and parcel practice so that purpose of the business tour could be accomplished without losing any time and cost.
Furthermore, in the connection of doing business in Egypt, it is recommended to learn some phrases and words of Egyptian Arabic, these attempts will act as the friendly gesture that will be appreciated and respected by your counterparts. During the session, hold your temper means that wait and allow your counterparts to have the opening greetings, this practice is highly advisable in the first session of business. Besides, shacking hand is the common practice, do not forget to practice this practice. However, there are numerous styles of greeting that are used in Egypt; furthermore, these styles are different among the gents and ladies. (essay, 2004)
During the entire session, eyeball to eyeball contact is inevitable, however, it is recommended only for male counterparts because having the eyeball to eyeball contact deem as the symbol of honesty. Besides, there is no need to force the Egyptian business person to make prompt decision because this tactics will not the give the good result because the pace of business and doing business in the Egypt is very slows than to the west.
It is the norm in Egyptian business to stand very closely; there is no any need to confuse because this confusion may lead to the offense, it is the time to be patience. There is no any need to discuss in detail about the family and personal issues with the counterparts, especially with the female business counterparts. However, to have conversation on any type of general welfare topics will be appropriate, except this, other discussion about the family and personal issue may cause to the state of undesirable situations because it may considered as inappropriate and personal ("Doing business in," ).
The above discussion and suggestions about doing business in Egypt should be taken as the guidelines so that purpose of business trips could be reaped, otherwise it will be the loss of resources. (research paper, 2009)




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