Adams equity theory
The social behavioral balance is very important in the society for the fairness. The equity theory is based on individual’s perception about poise treatment and with the reaction of people when they gone through unjust behavior. This reaction depends on the common psychological view of the society. This theory was proposed in 1963. The equity theory focuses on the fair treatment for the for the quality outcome. The distribution of rights amongst people of same designation should be balance. The process of motivation of people should be carried out equitably. The equity theory is all about social comparison between people. This theory emphasizes that people are constantly measuring behavior and judging themselves with others. They drive their state of being successful by comparing themselves with others [Mukherjee (2009). Prin of mgmt & Ob, 2E.tata mcgrew hill].
J. Stacy Adam was the author of equity theory according to this theory he said that people are very much concern about what they are doing and in return what they are getting for which they have constant attention on its measurement. He called this measurement as their perception. If they perceive to be appreciated and fairly treated for their work they continue their work with the same level of services of even more. But once they perceive that they are not getting the fair response they start losing their interest in their job which results in bad quality services by them. This imbalance in treatment produces a sense of demonization which causes a decrement in productivity [Anne Bogardus (2009). PHR/SPHR Professional in human resources certification study guide.SYBEX]
Equity theory is basically a social comparison theory because according to this theory people made their decisions on the bases of social comparisons. We made these comparisons unintentionally. If we have are giving a larger input then unconsciously believe that we will get a good output. If we do not get our perceived result than it disappointed us. This situation gives a rise to the feeling of imbalance or inequity. If this feeling of inequity arises than we stop feeling comfortable in working for the same cause and it affects the equality of their work. Equal treatment gives motivation to the people for quality of work and fair rewards [Mukherjee (2009). Prin of mgmt & Ob, 2E.tata mcgrew hill].
There are six consequences by the perception of inequity which was pointed out by J. stacy adam in his equity theory. First one is the reduction in quality of work by the employee if he is de-motivated by the authority and it might be increased if situation is reversed. His absentees’ may also be increased by the imbalance behavior of the boss. Second is the decrement or increment in the production quality by the fair or unfair rewards. Employee may work hard for the sake of getting promotions in his job. His perception about himself may also be changed by the balance treatment. He might starts assuming that he is giving less effort or needs to give more efforts in the job. This change is only produced by balance treatment. Modification in the perception about others also takes place by change in attitude at the time of appreciation or motivation. The act of unfair treatment will produce a decline in the view of one’s personality where as fair treatment gives a rise in the good reputation of a person. We are used to of comparing ourselves with others unintentionally. We are used to of comparing ourselves with others unintentionally. We made our comparisons with the most appropriate person. This object of comparison might be changed after fair rewards. A person can even get that much disappointed by the unequal treatment that he decides to leave the field or the organization and start his search for the new one [Mukherjee (2009). Prin of mgmt & Ob, 2E.tata mcgrew hill].
Equity theory is necessary to apply in the society for the healthy psychological environment. These days it is a fashion of most of the companies to give employment to the people of higher education with low salary packages which is certainly unethical. In these cases the employs try to do less work because they assume that are getting less for their skills. Underemployment is a big issue for these high educated, experienced and skilled people. Equity theory can be applied here to avoid this situation of underemployment. There also exist some situations in which people are getting higher designations comparing to their skills and education. This gives rise to the state of over employment. This over employment is also harmful for the organizations future security because a person cannot put efforts more than his skills. The people should be paid for their hard work and for what they are capable of only on fair basis regardless of their personal relationship [Mukherjee (2009). Prin of mgmt & Ob, 2E.tata mcgrew hill].
Equity theory basically elaborates the idea of amount of hard work that people do in response of their rewards. The disappointment emerges from the fact of difference. The difference made on the basis of peoples efforts and at the time of reward. The people should be awarded with reward fairly. People make their comparisons with people of same designation in other departments. They usually compare their salaries according to the level of hard work they perform as in the case of luggers and butchers. Butchers wants to adopt the luggers profession in sake of getting high reward with low level of hard work as compare to their own profession. Butchers are not getting pays for over time where as luggers can make a good income by working in extra time. The butchers perceived that this is unequal treatment with them and thus it disappointed them. This situation leads them to leave their own profession and to join other profession as stated by Adam in equity theory. This is one of the consequences of inequity in the society. The difference in one’s behavior also results the change in others behavior and produces tension among people’s relationship with one and other [L fleming fallon, Eric J Zgodzinski (2009). essential’s of public health management. Jones and Bartlett]
Who decides whether the relationship is equitable?
Most of us are agreed upon that society forms the standards of equity. It develops a system of equity and enforces to be followed. However there remains some condition in which intentionally or unintentionally unfair act occurs. But ultimately, equity is the perception of an individual to a get a level of response for their work and if they the society fails to come up with their expectation they get disappointed. People seldom measure their work on the scale of their own view. In some cases object is doing an equitable act but it is wrongly interpreted by the participant due to change in opinions. The fact of difference in everyone’s opinion is unavoidable [J Stacy Adams, Leonard berkowitz (1976). Equity theory. Academic press].
General behavior of people:
There are both cases exists that people do equitably and inequitably to maximize their productivity. But it is the responsibility of the society to promote equitability and enforce people to get better outcomes on the basis of equity. Nevertheless some people scarify their rewards for the benefits of others. It is a common belief that people mostly behave equitably but there also exist some possibility that they behave unfairly. It depends on individual’s perception. People want punishment for those who behave inequitably. This punishment forbid future act of inequity in the society. The people who go throw the inequitable situations feel distress. Equity is never supported by the people either they are suffering from it or getting benefits [J Stacy Adams, Leonard berkowitz (1976). Equity theory. Academic press].
Adams elaborated the social justice in work. The individual make comparisons of its contributions to work and the economical or social results from his contributions. The people perceive the amount of response for what they are doing and justice lies in this perception. The participants are satisfied only if they get a balance response according to his perception.