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July 11, 2013

Essay on HIV and Aids

 Since the mid-80s, the fight against HIV / AIDS has gradually mobilized governments, international institutions and organizations NGOs. However, it became apparent that despite massive efforts and action to inform the public about the risks, changes in behavior did not follow as planned (Theory at a Glance). The contagion continued to spread quickly, and questions have arisen about the effectiveness of efforts in the fight against the disease. Experience has shown that, the HIV / AIDS is a complex phenomenon with multiple facets and requires close cooperation and strategies on multiple dimensions (Keller& Brown, 2002).
Nearly twenty years since the discovery in 1981, as a new syndrome, the syndrome immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and identification, in 1983, its causative agent, the virus human immunodeficiency, there is still no cure or vaccine against this disease. The initiatives to change attitudes remain the main means available to stop the spread and are thought to be the essential tool for remedying the consequences negative disease
In United States it is seen that by the time the teens have graduated from high school, nearly two thirds of young people will have experienced sexual intercourse (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 2002). Unprotected sex among these young people is evident. According to Ventura, Abma, Mosher & Henshaw (2002) the 15-19-year-old individuals made up 76.4 per 1000 pregnancies in 2002. Intercourse is common among youth and represents a key transition point in sexual development (Delamater, 1981). Most sexually active teens wish they had waited longer to have sex (National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2002). This suggests that youth are having sex before they are prepared for its consequences. Compared with those who postpone sexual activity until later, individuals who initiate sexual activity in adolescence have an increased risk of acquiring a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) (Brown & Eisenberg, 1995; Koyle, Jensen & Olsen, 1989). Of the 18.9 million new cases of STDs that occurred in the U.S. in 2000, almost half (9.1 million) were among persons age 15 to 24 (Weinstock, Berman & Cates, 2004).
The government has therefore introduced some interventions program in the curriculum.Schools fulfill the function of teaching students the values and customs of the larger society (Tweedell, 2003). Government funds that schools provide abstinence-only education, for which there are three pieces of federal legislation: (a) Section 510 of the Social Security Act (b) the Adolescent Family Life Act and the teen pregnancy prevention component, and (c) Community-Based Abstinence Education (CBAE) (Hardcastle, 2008). Since the introduction of this legislation the United States has required public schools to teach a curriculum which includes a minimal number of hours dealing with of reproduction, health and pregnancy prevention instruction (Sullivan, 2009). Nevertheless, as of today, only nine states require sexuality education that includes information about contraception. Five other states require that if sexuality education is provided, it must include information about contraception (NARAL, 2000).
The most common recovery methods and techniques that are currently in practice are: Interpersonal Therapies, Prescribed Medications, Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Group Therapies, and Moral Reconation Therapy. The Moral Reconation is the special type of Therapy that focuses on the basic treatment issues that are assessing developing a tolerance for frustration, developing a higher stage of moral reasoning, formation of positive identity, current and prior relationships, attitudes and behaviors, confronting their beliefs, decreasing their self indulgence, reinforcing positive behavior and other habits ("Sex addiction treatment").
The point that should be noticed that above discussed suggestions about the therapies and sex education directly and indirectly support the notion of Healthy people 2010 and its Focus areas in the quest of improving the health of whole American nation.
The global strategy against sexually transmitted infections 2006-2015 was developed in response to resolution of the World Health Assembly calling to develop a comprehensive health sector response to epidemics of HIV / AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. It complements the strategy on reproductive health to accelerate progress towards achieving the development goals and international targets. Building on the global strategy, the regional strategy against Sexually Transmitted Infections (2009-2015) takes account of different epidemiological, cultural and socio-economic situations of countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.
The strategy was developed in 2007-2008 by a process of consultation with public health experts, clinicians and scientists in the field of sexually transmitted reproductive health in the countries of the Region and regional partners. It aims to provide a framework for guide actions accelerated the fight against sexually transmitted infections in regional and national levels.
Sexually transmitted infections (other than HIV) cause significant mortality and morbidity significant adults and newborns and amplify the risk of HIV transmission. They constitute a significant health and economic burden, particularly for developing countries where they represent 17% of economic losses due to health problems. Reliable data on Global and regional prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases are limited due to neglected monitoring and inadequate funding at the global, regional and national levels. According best available estimates, about 340 million new cases of syphilis curable,
Gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis occur each year worldwide in Men and women aged 15 to 49 years. The WHO estimated that about 10 million new cases each year in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Few countries in the Region have developed a comprehensive national strategy to fight against sexually transmitted while such a strategy would achieve the Millennium Development Goals and to fight against HIV. Often the existing interventions in the region are not based on health approaches effective evidence-based public
Stages of Change (Transtheoretical) Model: A comprehensive overview of the theory
This is a health theory used by promoters of health to bring a positive change. The literature describes indices analysis for different environments how to plan a behavioral change. Steckler, Goodman and Kegler (2002) proposed a four-step model for behavioral change that can be implemented in health promotion. The theory recognizes the importance of different stages of behavioral change and strategies needed to promote change in each stage.
The four steps are:
·         awareness
·         adoption
·         implementation
·         institutionalization
Step 1: Awareness - This step creates interest and support for behavioral change in higher levels of the organization by clarifying the issues of Health and identifying possible solutions. The educational awareness intervention follows this step in trying to make the hazardous implications of irresponsible sexual behavior.
Step 2: Adoption - This step involves the planning and adoption of a policy, a program or another innovation that addresses the problems. This step identifies the resources required for implementation. Ideally it is at this stage that the negotiation will be used to achieve changes and innovations in order to make it more compatible to the culture and characteristics of the society. As possible, stakeholders 'first line' which know the organization and its culture are the most directly involved in this step. The schools make the students aware of the health issues in irresponsible behavior but need to bring innovations to the program as the programs do not show the desired results.
Step 3: Implementation - This phase covers the technical aspects of delivery of program: the provision of training and equipment necessary to support introducing change. Also at this stage the essential capabilities of the introduction and maintenance of change in the organization are encouraged. Those who play a direct role in implementing solutions are most involved in this step. People need to be trained to
Step 4: Institutionalization - This stage deals with the long-term maintenance of an innovation. The upper levels of the organization are most involved at this stage because they establish the necessary systems to ensure quality performance, training, evaluation and financial resources.










References
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002). Trends in sexual risk behaviors among high school students - United States, 1991–2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 51, 856–859. Retrieved February 9, 2010 form PsycARTICLES database
Delamater, J. (1981). The social control of sexuality. Annual Review of Sociology, 7, 263–290. In Martino, Collins, Kanouse, Elliott & Berry (2005). Social cognitive processes mediating the relationship between exposure to television's sexual content and adolescents' sexual behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89 (6). Retrieved February 9, 2010 form PsycARTICLES database.
Hardcastle, M. (2008). Teen story of the year 2007: Jamie Lynn Spears from teen idol to teen mom. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from
Keller, Sarah, N. & Brown, Jane, D. (2002). Media Interventions to Promote Responsible Sexual Behavior. The Journal of Sex Research, 39 (1), February: pp. 67-72
Sullivan, A. (2009). How to end the war over sex ed. Time, 173(12) 40-43. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from the Academic Serch Premier database
Theory at a Glance. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National
Institutes of Health
Tweedell, C. B. (2003). Sociology: A christian approach for changing the world. Marion,
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 Ventura, S., Abama, J., Mosher, W., & Henshaw, S. (2002). Recent trends in teenage pregnancy in the United States. In Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2006. Pediatrics: Official journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 122 (5), 1047-1053. Retrieved April 11, 2010 from www.pediatrics.org.
Weinstock, H., Berman, S., & Cates, W., Jr. (2004). Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: Incidence and prevalence estimates. Perspectives in Sexual and Reproductive Health,36, 6–10. In Martino, Collins, Kanouse, Elliott & Berry (2005). Social cognitive processes mediating the relationship between exposure to television's sexual content and adolescents' sexual behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89 (6). Retrieved February 9, 2010 form PsycARTICLES database.



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