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July 20, 2013

Essay on HR System

HR System

Information systems management of human resources is an interface between the human resource management (HRM) and information technology and communication (ICT). It combines the HRM, and in particular its basic administrative activities such as (payroll, administration), with the resources made available by ICT. It includes planning of relevant activities and data processing usually designed to be integrated into an ERP system (Enterprise Resource Planning or ERP). ERP systems are computer programs that integrate information from different origins in a company of modules integrated into a single application and single database.
The quality of the link between the financial modules and human resources is particularly important to companies, given the financial burden--- usually a very important factor in human resource. 
ICTs also offer important developments for HRM other than for internal management andintegrated financial management of an enterprise, such as applications developed intra-or extranet on recruitment and E-learning. 
                                                                 Payroll
The payroll module automates the payroll by gathering the data made available to the worker for its services and its nature, and applies to deductions, payroll tax levy and periodically generates an individual account and a proposed payment order .It can also generate data and statistics for all concerned staff. The performance data can be generated automatically (devices) or via an encoding. Information can also be sent to a financial module.

                                            Management of job performance 
The management module perform the task of integrating ICT and rational methods for the management of job performance. The module incorporates the latest technological flexibility for data analysis. It also serves the purpose of carrying out analysis and proposals in planning the division of labor.  This part of the application is to be in close parallels with the elements of financial management and production. 

                                            Management benefits 
The management module offers various features to HR professionals in order to better manage the benefits which are mandatory or otherwise such as health insurance, workers compensation insurance, supplementary pension insurance. 

                      Human resource management (careers, competencies, recruiting) 
The module of human resource management with other aspects of HR, is with fewer legal constraints but more subject to political management. The management of a worker's career, his recruitment to the board, is especially developed.  Through this system, the personal data such as age, address and information about family, skills and academic training details and wage levels are gathered. it also collects and records the available data.
Information System of HRM can integrate these four segments of HRM by establishing functional links between these activities within the software. 

The Internet can be used as a means of communication and sending files. Information systems of HRM can convert this data to a web browser interface used by the ERP. This type of system interface allows for portability and lower cost for access management systems, thus increasing the efficiency of HRM workers.  Heads of departments may also have partial access to the system, which allows for example to enter their own data concerning such as an application for leave. 

 These tasks usually can be costly in terms of time and money, such as administrative staff or reimbursement for travel, change of personal data, and registration for training to a pension plan can take a longer period of time. Through this system, the concerned person may himself perform the task. As a matter of fact, integrated HR systems release HR staff’s tedious, repetitive tasks, allowing them to focus more on problems related to decision-making process in the company and strategic or political.


The fact of the matter is that the management of human resources is becoming more complex with each passing day and given its utmost monotony the need for information system becomes even more pronounced.
          At the same time, the HR function is becoming increasingly multi-faceted with the development of centers of expertise and increasing role of organization’s strategy. In such a situation, it is essential that the management of human resources establish a certain level of synthesis having the necessary tools in place to brace for making the collective and collaborative decision making.
(Development of centers of expertise, increase the role of coaching.
Keeping in mind this very need, the decision-making system must cover almost the total of information systems business (commercial, production, management, logistics, and HR etc) Computer systems would rely on the existence of interfaces, integration and implementation coherence of the system and will be based on the pooling of data. The first characteristic of the HRDP lies in the fact these all tool are necessary for the collective management of HR.
The overall system will have an ability to treat a wide range of information and organize them according to axes analysis making all the stored information easily scalable. These processing capabilities and data aggregation induce a characteristic of a quantitative approach towards HR management. The HRDP mainly cater to pay systems and time management applications. the skills, scope and analysis that a HRDP has are as below:
• Management of time (e.g. absenteeism) 
• Management of staff (e.g. number of staff) 
· Productivity (in conjunction with production data for studies such as: 
on the implementation and effectiveness of certain training programs ) 
• Management of payroll (e.g. study expenses) 
· Quantitative aspects of management training (e.g. budgets, hours, staffing 
formed)
More qualitative fields can be covered subject to a precise formalization 
and homogeneity of definitions (have the same meanings behind 
same words). For example, for any company wishing to deploy this type of application, on management skills, you will need to invest heavily on the formalization skills, their level of expertise 
The axes of analysis of these fields can be: 
• The time (retrospective analysis, simulations, forecasts) and geographical locations
• The type of job (eg functional / operational) 
· The pace of work 
· The 'hierarchical coefficients' 
· Functions, etc. ... 
Different variables can be used as the axis of analysis as needed 
and as per the requirements of each organization (e.g. sex in order to analyze the 'parity' in 
business, geographical distance, etc ...).


Design
Designing an information system is not an easy task because one has to bring about the changes in the whole organization. The design phase requires methods to establish a model on which one will build the whole system. Modeling is done with an aim to create a virtual representation of reality in such a way that emphasizes the points of interest. 

The design of a human resources system is influenced by several variables in a process of nonlinear interactions. Each context requires its own strategy and that at each level of the organization. The process of building a human resources system is complex, iterative and constantly changing

                                         Presentation of the method MERISE 

MERIS is a method of design, development and implementation of IT projects. The purpose of this method is to achieve design an information system. MERISE method is based on the separation of data and processing to be performed in several physical and conceptual models. 
The separation of data and processing model ensures longevity. Indeed, the arrangement of data need not be revised frequently, while the treatments are more frequent. 

                               Cycle of abstraction for designing information systems 

The design of information system is chalked out in stages mainly to achieve a functional information system that reflects the physical reality. It is therefore mandatory for one to validate each step by taking into account the results of the previous phase. On the other hand, the data being separated treatments, check the concordance between data and processes to ensure that all data required for treatment are present and there is no extraneous data.

This method is usually used when the existing system is entirely satisfactory and that the available data in it is sufficient in terms of goals of decision-making system
In all cases, the implementation of an information project will facilitate the decision 
transition from a centralized organizational world to a network structure to a 
single decision but based on data and simulations analyzed in common. 

           These developments and the nature of HRDP therefore require a strategy, this is to imply Human resources with clear targets and enriched economic dimension. It
generally responds effectively to these new complexities and expectations expressed or implied. These projects usually cover a large technical and organizational complexity and must require a genuine partnership between the different directorates involved (HR, Finance, Operational Management, 
Directorate General) and companies that specialize in engineering applications to nature of a decision support project or department in charge of the project, by the establishment of correspondents familiar with aspects of business 
each Directorate and technical decisions.



Implementation

   The development of an effective policy development or redevelopment of activities based on a strategic approach needs to be temporary but included in the process of business plan, but integrated within management and daily business thereof. 
The basis of the implementation of effective control of HR management is essentially based on the notions of stability, quality information (time, relevance, reliability, efficiency) and a set of indicators, marking the evolution of performance and optimal use of resources. 
The HRDP project must therefore take into account the situation of a domestic nature and / or external decisions broadly and encompass existing systems. The strategic decisions are more difficult to quantify.(Snell, 2002)  Though the formulation of these objectives is relatively easy at first glance but the development and implementation of strategic management control process is riddled with complexities. The implementation plan should be in line with the realities and operational necessities which requires a period of profound questioning through different management approaches and use of information.
In addition, only then the establishment of such procedures of management can rely on a powerful information system. 

  With the elimination of confusion regarding the information system it becomes possible to come up with a clear design of an information system and subsequently its implementation. Prior to the implementation of the design, it must meet the following criteria. It should contain information data that should be processed thoroughly. There should be unity in action and goal in regard to its implementation. This unity of action or goal implies that the information system covers a coherent domain of activity in the sense that each element is included in the sphere of 
operational or strategic decisions related to the action or the objective. 
Aimed at developing a genuine strategic control of the Resource Management 
Humanities, the HRDP should position itself as a true support system to decision (in the upper part of the informational pyramid) and cover or at least synthesize all the results of existing applications or planned (depending on the option initially selected). 
That said, the definition and implementation of an information system does not usually cause insurmountable problems unless one considers the facts following: 
 Quality Information 
                                       The organization of information processes 
 The juxtaposition of responsibilities and the multiplicity of actors is essential. This set of considerations leads towards the establishment of the system.  HR must participate in decision-making process virtuous circle approach, strategic HR management and control of human resources. The schematic diagram could then be symbolized as follows: with the information system of the HR function, conventionally represented as a pyramid with three levels: data and operational procedures, rules and information management, knowledge and 
policy experiments. 
The decision system must retrieve, consolidate and then check the consistency of all data and information to feed the strategic approach to human resource management and management control. 
Make an inventory of items necessary for the information system and this will create the CMC (Conceptual Model of Communication) which defines the flow of information to consider.

The next step is to develop the CDM (Conceptual model of data) and MCT (Conceptual Model of Treatment) describing the rules and constraints to be taken into account. The organizational model is to define the word (Organizational Model of treatments) describing the constraints posed by the environment (organizational, spatial and temporal).The logical model represents a choice for software information system. The physical model reflects a choice material for the information system.
The design and piloting of the project must necessarily be done with a team section. This team-cross representing the main areas of HRD offers several other 
benefits. It first allows moving more rapidly to the arbitrary relevance for indicators and objectives. 
HRDP must achieve a synthesis and integration of different management approaches and attitudes prevalent in the company present in the company (single or multi-faceted). The project relies on a perfect control of information flows within the institutions and to 
partners.
Besides the control of information flows within institutions, the establishment of a HRDP requires adaptation to existing systems and applications. In this context, special attention should be paid to the fact that the application is independent of upstream applications, (this which is normally the case if we sought to define the decision-making system based on a set of data to be available) in order not to risk making it impractical in case of change of one or the other applications. 


The information technology and human resources management maintain an ambiguous relationship. Thus they have transformed the HR function almost radically bringing changes in business environment and enriching with new strategic roles.   
 It facilitates the adoption of new systems: personalization, adaptation, mobilization, sharing and anticipation. The information technology has now appeared as a potential source of competitive advantage in the HR function. However, as stressed in the literature in information systems, these technologies are revolutionizing the way enterprises operate. 
 The aspirations of the workforce: The HRM must take into account the continuing evolution of expectations and values of employees who generally aspire to enjoy greater autonomy and greater participation. 
The Knowledge-management: highly skilled workers (knowledge workers) are the new strategic assets of the business. 
It must therefore seek to maintain and develop them. 
-Globalization (decompartmentalization space and global management of corporate resources). 
-The e-business: Internet, network, networks, and new information technologies and communication technologies (ICTs) are changing the rules of competition. 

Meanwhile, information technologies have had, with the advent of ICT, a real revolution. The information technologies have improved the collection and transmission of data. 
Today we are witnessing a revolution in concepts, driven by IT, which changes the meaning of information. 

The information system (HRIS) is a procedure for collecting, storage, restoration and data validation on human resources, staff activities and characteristics of the organizational units that enterprises require. It has not been complex or even computerized. It also includes people, forms, policies and procedures, and data. 

Broderick and Bourdeau (1992) distinguish two types of applications that use information for decision-making: expert systems that offer alternatives based on experience and expert knowledge of the business they are as intelligent applications in areas and well defined; 
Support systems to treat the information presented graphically in several forms. Examples of support systems to the RH are rarer, the increasing complexity, its transversal nature can perhaps explain this scarcity. The value of information for decision making is based on two factors provides services in the form of information, reports, internal customers and external users of the system. 
Support transactions and to maintain hierarchical control HRIS serves the automation of administrative procedures. It improves productivity and service quality. 
How many decisions are made using the information? How much value will this decision does? 
The new software personnel administration certainly can automate tasks and reduce costs, but they also introduce new personnel management process built around an idea: decentralization. It helps to involve managers and employees become responsible and independent. However, other information systems highlight the difficulty of establishing a link between information and business performance.

The focus of all HRIS must be in first place, the validity and usefulness of information and after the process automation, automation can increase administrative productivity including the HR department. However, this productivity is accompanied by necessary downsizing but, rather, it allows free time for spots previously neglected. It can also definire usefulness of information and HRIS based on these other inputs: 

Logical accompaniment of the new HRM (personalization, adaptation and mobilization) that involves optimal use of resources; 
Sharing of HR made necessary by changes in economic environment: all managers involved in HRM, they must, for this purpose have information relevant to analyze and decide. 
The difficulty to understand and manipulate the HRIS for non-specialists could explain the slow time of the computerization of HR. HRIS actually belonged to SI specialists who manage and determine needs. However, today we are witnessing an explosion of computer HR. It found a second wind with the development of AH and flextime supported by software packages that allow management time schedules set by the historical flow, type of contract employees and legislation. 

Furthermore, with the recognition of the strategic role of human resources in achieving organizational goals, more and more people are urged to use an HRIS increasingly decentralized: the HR functional forms and assigned to a specific area in need a tool for reporting and communication. HR managers looking to automate administrative operations use HRIS for different types of information ranging from the activities of their subordinates in different management approach and direction looking for the most aggregated information and the employees who until very recently could only receive HRIS but are increasingly involved in managing their personal data. 

A theoretical approach is that the human resources information system contributes more than the individual approach to organizational performance. An information systems approach also allows exploiting the complementarities and synergies in achieving competitive advantage supra. The individual approach induces very little change. A systemic approach to better build a vision and sets up Human Resources in strategic asset is rewarding. 
The competitive advantage that this approach generates is its durability and it is easily imitable by competitors who are not in the context of its design. Created a system includes policies and action guides and practices. The practices contained in turn processes or standards established as informal managerial habits. The strategy is to combine policies and practices in that Tyson (1995) calls the philosophy of Human Resources. 
Construction of human resource systems is more complex than its blending with policies and practices. It occurs at several levels as cited by the authors lay down to three: the architecture, alternative processes and practices. This differentiation creates an additional complexity when it comes to an organization with several divisions. Contextual factors complicate the interaction between strategy and human resource management.  
At the division level, the approach is oriented towards more standardization between the sub-divisions and reducing the cost of human resources to maximize overall profit. The sub-division is left with a fragmented approach in contrast to the comprehensive approach advocated by the normative and division.  The division is thus reduced to a having a role of overseer of policies and practices throughout the structure. The potential for conflict persists between the interests of the division to harmonize and streamline, while the sub-divisions are constantly looking for the system that best suits their needs. Areas such as the system of hiring and pay are a source of constant friction. 
Between the promotion by seniority and merit promotion, wage setting is not identical in all sub-divisions. The authors list a range of areas of potential conflict. The sub-division is more concerned about a short-term success while the division is focusing its strategies towards the long term. These resources are considered by the sub-division in question as the intellectual capital that must be maintained and developed an investment rooted in its culture and hardly imitable by competitors. The author revisited it for all processes to ensure the logical link between them and their interdependence.(Wright, 2003) 
All managers have been involved in the design of these reforms and their implementation. This sub-division concerned calls into question the role of the main division and its human resources department. The authors advise to leave it as an advisor in the best practices, collector and disseminator of them. Best practices may however vary from one subdivision to another and the task of the division is even more important that we must sort that out.


The information system has some special features related to nature of its information, the frequency of individual events and collective modify the information or transactions, the type of decisions taken and the diversity of stakeholders.  All this is not strictly speaking Informatics Service Resources Human, but can understand the importance of social information in
the company and realize that a computer given the amount of information to handle is the tool that will help structure it.  
Individual information is varied. We cannot pretend to describe completely every employee at work; the extent of necessary vocabulary is in itself an obstacle to automation. For example, the Curriculum Vitae exhibit such diversity than the paper is generally archived in the state, rarely updated and used. 
Moreover, the information is tainted with uncertainty. For example, describing the interpersonal skills of an agent, when they have a great importance in maintaining the occupation is a delicate operation. An individual reacts to those around him and the environment in which he works.  Any information of the person should consider the circumstances only for they are always entitled to a minimum completeness or predictability.
In the field of human resources, the quality outweighs the quantity; it cannot be standardized so comprehensive reasons for judgments implicit value that vehicle and the multiplicity of factors. Individual information must be reliable. 
As in other areas, the collective staff consolidates the individual information, depends on the reliability of data processed on updating as much as the treatment performed.  Collective decisions and the wealth of information create a barrier related to the ambiguities of the vocabulary used by different actors. Individual information of staff is always subject to constraints

 Certain information is excluded by law to avoid discrimination. Others are subject to a confidentiality obligation: their communication is permitted only within certain limits, and for a specific purpose. In addition any employee can know the contents of the records and ask for correction of the errors it contains.
Additional information is subject to numerous substantive legal obligations
and shape: the rights of employees, keeping records, updates.
There must be an updated archive—a collection of evidence. For example, the pay must be justified in calculation, stored with double the pay slip accompanied by proof of payment to employees and social benefits funds.
New information regarding the status of an individual occur unpredictably (family life) or planned life. They must be immediately recorded in the information system, and taken into account. 
Random events on collective management of personnel (rate contributions, CSG, SMIC etc should also be stored and recorded. The law requires multiple declarations: Social, DADS, INSEE surveys or federations professional communication representative bodies in the form of balance sheets  past and projected (training, professional equality, development of employment ) It is a constraint results: given the content and form of each  statement to make, we must collect and process information necessary individual production indicators requested. 
One of the problems posed by these statements is the disparity indicators for partners

This is to cope with the unexpected while keeping a minimum of coherence 
in action and over time. The most important decisions of strategic level and significance
fall into this technique because the necessary information is not always available, reliable, quantifiable, known with certainty. At a more operational level, decisions for improving the organization and conditions of work following an approach that is more a gamble than certainties. Its success depends on the animation capabilities of management responsible for carrying-out "micro-negotiations" on a daily basis with employees, without compromising performance targets. Other decisions are a combination of formal and informal reasoning structure. The budgetary calculations and accounting, mathematical optimization or
simulation is an aid to quantitative decision making. They are used during budgetary decisions, investment decisions of the management plan and simulation 
of wage policies.
In the field of management and development of Human Resources, decisions are contingent and conjectural which reduces the effectiveness of approaches purely Cartesian. This difficulty is reinforced by the intervention of different actors within the civil personnel.


The information system has its numerous benefits as well. Many companies seem incline to integration information system because it can enhance the competitiveness and efficiency of the HR operations. it provides a gamut of computerized processed transactions which is impossible to find through the use of individual system for that matter.
The most obvious benefit of information system is that it makes every employee a part of it. Furthermore, it can show signs of improved results in terms of a variety of HR reports that it produces.  The employer has a choice to revamp its whole HR function by letting the information system replace and integrate the tasks which were hitherto being carried out by the HR employees manually.
The function of IS may be limited to personnel administration, if necessary with using external consultants, and individual adjustments performed by a hierarchy giving polarized output. 
There is generally no social partner and the right office is often seen as a costly state interference, sources deemed unnecessary complications.
In contrast, the "big business" has the means to acquire professional high level. It provides the means to implement them (animation guidance, procedures and physical media) and monitoring its implementation (monitoring and correction).
Technologies are changing very rapidly currently and a new skilled workforce is required. HR Mangers may find recruitment for suitably skilled people extremely difficult. The recruitment and retention of high skilled workers can have serious cost implications.
Most of the evaluation is done through recruitment software. Once the evaluation is complete, Dell can take away these strategies and use them to help with the proper growth within the company.
Main objective to having a staffing strategy is to help meet the company's business goals. By understanding Dell business goals keeps the competitive advantage low for other organizations to try to take over. By having the company business goals in mind helps with the continuous growth of the company to become larger and possibly hire more often with in time.

Organizations are experiencing major environmental upheavals such as increased globalization, deregulated industrial relation system, competition and technological advances. These economic, social and political contexts have in turn triggered a complex multiplicity of overlapping, concurrent initiatives that are radically altering existing structures, cultures and job requirements.
In turn, HR and line managers must successfully source and attract potential employees in a highly competitive environment as well as abiding by legislation relating to equal employment, workplace relations and privacy legislation. Additionally, the integrating of recruitment tools such as job analysis and design as well as an understanding of the organization’s culture are necessary to establish selection criteria in selecting potential employees. (Schuler 1993).





Conclusion
In conclusion, the information system of the human resources function presents unique features .The hierarchy and interdependence of decisions determines the necessary information, their "suppliers" and their "clients". Information is a resource to be managed to increase the effectiveness of the function. Planning, organization, and management of an information system are done continuously to assess the adequacy of resources compared to the basic needs of the function. 
The designing of an information system focuses more on developing an architecture adapted to the personnel policies, the organization and its members, on media use. Do not fall into the illusion computing, features of this tool should not create confusion between ends and means.









References

Snell, A. (2002). Low employment is good for strategic staffing. Recruiting Exchange.
Noe, R.A., Hollenbeck J.R., Gehert B., and Wright, P.M. (2003). Fundamentals of Human Resources Management, 1e.
Schuler, RS & Huber, VL Personal and Human Resource Management West Publishing Company 5th Edition 1993
Dreher & Dougherty (2001). The effective management of people. McGraw-Hill (Ed.), Understanding Behavior in Organizations (p. 4). New York.
Frauenheim, E. (2006). Dell Reboots Recruitment For International Approach. Workforce Management, 85(7), 24-24. Retrieved on December 2010 7, 2010,
Eisenhardt, K. M., & Brown, S.L. (1999). Patching: Restitching business portfolios in dynamic      markets. Business Source Complete, 77(3), 1-3. Park, A., (2004). Dell's hiring binge--abroad. Business Week Online, April, 2004.


                                    

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