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July 22, 2013

Essay on Management: The Holland Model

The Holland model

This Model became popular in academic and career around 1960.
In Holland, there are 6 types of jobs require different skills and interests. He therefore classifies jobs based on this model. Scales in this model correspond to the demands of employers and jobs in each of 6 areas of RIASEC typology. For example, employers are looking for committed people who go to work systematically, and also people who fit well in a structured organization or they do not tend to become the bosses.
The other aspect of the Holland model which limits its application is that it means that people have personality traits that allow them to satisfy their interests. Interests and personality coincide. Out, theories of career development say it is false. For example, young men choose career first and typically male-oriented action. They want to drive a crane, being a firefighter or police officer. These roles have social status, but do not involve a statute based on a social power. Physical strength and courage of the firefighter and police officer attract them. The crane operator is strong because his physical strength is multiplied by the aircraft he operates.
The doctors, lawyer or engineer have articles based on social perceptions of adults. Their salary is a good indicator. For these positions, you have to study the intellectually demanding and few people have because the competition is tough. Socially prestigious positions are coveted. Young people want to become movie stars, but few have the talent to do so and even less will do. After discovering the models most obvious level of physical strength, young boys adopt more sophisticated models of the most obvious social success.
In reality, there are few who are doctors and engineers. The majority must make these concessions. There will be technical draftsmen, and technicians who work in jobs between the two poles that are easiest to observe for youth.

The Holland model thus simplifies the central problem of adjustment to the jobs that interest.
Product Career Leader is the same. It assumes that the Harvard MBA student who wants to become part has the skills to do so. It simply does not reflect the skills and capacity to develop them. In 1950, students in high school and college population were already privileged intellectual and skill level. Since then, all young people know that love is not enough work to successfully obtain one.

Interest predicts whether someone will like a job or not. As against this likelihood of individual satisfaction with the job does not predict that he/she will be able to get the job or do well. Professional activities, as well as work environments, tend to bring together people who share common interests and, to some extent, are similar. The choice of a profession or trade then becomes a form of expression of the personality of an individual and this is the theory of vocational interest.
This ideology has been issued by the American psychologist and researcher John Holland (1959-1997). The latter questioned hundreds of people, both within the U.S. military as the University of Michigan, about their career choices. The results of his research supports the association of workers to a type of career would be determined by their abilities, interests and personality. Some activities are therefore better suited to a type of person rather than another.

Case study of Leslie and application of Holland Theory
Leslie is a 35-year old woman who holds bachelors’ degree. She considers quitting her current job as a math teacher in a high school.  She expresses a great deal of dissatisfaction over her current job mainly because it is hectic involving long working hours.  She became dissatisfied with the job mainly due to the fact the the newly-appointed principle of the school had put in place various administrative tasks much to her displeasure. She deemed it insulting to a teacher of her caliber. Secondly, the parents of the students and her meetings with them were quire disagreeable. The parents displayed a slight interest in the activities of their children yet expected her to go beyond while teaching them. It was not all a negative experience though. She is glad to have taught advance math to a class of motivated and inquisitive students. The above stated reasons compelled her to consider the option of quitting the existing job.
 Leila’s history shows a consistent personality type of investigative and social as she conducted these activities (mainly teaching) ever since her childhood. For instance, she also used to play school with her sister in the high school.  The set of interests that comprises both investigative and social are not necessarily consistent because they are not adjoining on Holland’s hexagon. This may be true for many individuals who have inconsistent and inharmonic interests. Leslie’s problems with the decision making of the career possibly arose out of her evidently incompatible social and investigative interests.  Leslie decided to teach math education and it reflected both the kinds of interests: social and investigative.
   From the standpoint of Holland, the evaluation of environment is necessary to determine an individual’s interests, future goals, and criterion for satisfaction.  In the case of Leslie, she was brought up in a family and environment which had artistic and enterprising elements. Her family symbolized a heterogeneous environment reflecting investigative and conventional characteristics. Her educational environment can be termed as an investigative one because she chose to teach college math and it reflects such a tendency.
   Leslie’s case should be analyzed in the light of her characteristics and the features of her family, educational, and professional environment.  Her personality type of investigative-social conventional (ISC) can be analyzed with the constructs of Holland’s theory. Her Strong Interest Inventory (SII) profile is marked by a peak in investigative interests and slump in artistic interests. Leslie’s three highest scores (I, S, and C) are far from being consistent with each other. I is glaringly higher than S and C depicting an inconsistent and incongruent pattern. Her interests cannot be said to be adjacent to one another on the hexagon.
 However, Leslie’s vocational identity is stable and consistent enough as she knows her strength and interest area but has kept her interest alive in teaching ever since high school. The analysis of Leslie’s case highlights some important features. High school teachers tend to be social with the exception math teachers who are conventional-investigative-realistic type while science teachers are investigative-realistic-social type. The particular school in which Leslie teaches may be defined as quite heterogeneous and undifferentiated but it reflects almost all the Holland personality types in an inconsistent manner.  Leslie’s type of investigative-social-conventional appears to be in harmony with the social and environmental setting of the school. But her colleagues pose an incongruent environment. (Swanson & Nadya, 2009) The predicament of Leslie is intensified because he has more social interest as compared to her math-teaching colleagues and moreover she displays more investigative interests than other teachers.  She considers quitting the job because she finds herself unable to fit into with environment of the school. Furthermore, her dissatisfaction is also caused by a shift in her interests.

Holland typology

This typology is used to describe people, environments and their interactions respectively. It can therefore be used to explain the behavior of individual vocations. The Holland typology is often represented by the hexagonal model after defining the psychological similarities and interactions between types and environments. Holland proposes among other things that people begin at birth to acquire, through the reinforcements received, directories of personality or behavior that constitute the basic elements of their personality.

(RIASEC vocational or typology)

It is possible to represent the model of John Holland in the form of a hexagon, giving the spatial representation of six major interest groups.
All individuals may be associated with personality types of this model. Obviously, each person has more than one characteristic of the typology it is important to examine only the three dominant characteristics. The environment in which workers change can also be characterized using the same approach, each profession combining several fields of interest.
The theory proposed by John Holland in ascending order to determine the three dominant types that match the personality of the individual and identify occupations that suit them best. The combination of person-work environment is the most used worldwide in the field of educational and vocational guidance.

                                                The six profiles of the Holland typology and application

The RIASEC model characteristics are summarized below. "Realistic" (R) types prefer activities, strength, coordination and manual dexterity required, and produces concrete, visible results, especially in the mechanical, technical, agricultural area. In dealing with materials and animals in the systematic use of machines and tools, and problem solving specific tasks, he feels safe because he has ability in technical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, he avoids social functions and cooperation with people who have different views. Because he has a traditional value system, he preferred material values, such as money, power and status.
"Intellectuals" (I) types prefer activities where the management of tasks and problems by thinking, systematic observation and research is required. You have abilities and skills, especially in mathematics and natural sciences. He proceeds analytically, methodically and accurately. He frequently deals with physical, biological or cultural phenomena. Particularly pronounced are his skills in five mathematischn natural sciences. Less important for him social contact; management tasks or repetitive skills he refuses. The value system of this type is addressed reflect the activities of science. Professional solves problems of research-type preferably independently and considered the consultant rather than helpers. Sometimes he does, however, from a complicated problem even caught. Possible trades would be the radio engineer or scientific researchers.
    "Artistic" (A) types prefer open, unstructured activities that enable a linguistic or artistic self-expression or the creation of creative products, particularly in language, art, music and drama. His artistic self-expression and the creation of creative products, he realized in the handling of materials, which make him so. Linguistic, musical skills or those in the field of writing and the spectacle he has unfolded far, while he rejects systematic, orderly activities. Experiences and challenges in the aesthetic field, he knows how to appreciate. In a counseling situation, he strongly emphasized his feelings and prefers unstructured approaches. Artistic types choose professions such as the goldsmith, and writer and actor.
    "Social" (S) types prefer activities where they can engage with others in the form of teaching, teaching, schools, services or care. Its strengths are in the field of human relations. Particularly in the social and educational sector, he has special abilities. Since he has little other technical and scientific qualifications, he rejected the use of tools or systematically arranged activities. Just ethical and social values
​​are of great value to him. The professional counselor can expect in an interview with the social type to use the large clients; however, tends the type referred to in the consultation to show great activity.
    "Corporate" (E) types prefer activities and situations in which they influence others using language or other means to bring something to lead, can manipulate. Its strengths are leadership and conviction and he has high quality self-confidence. However, there is in him a lack of scientific talent, so that he avoids observational and symbolic abilities. His values
​​are more traditionally oriented, so he appreciates the social, political, economic success and is considered a performance-oriented. His behavior in the counseling can be described as confident, and he has some problems of a realistic assessment of his abilities. Examples are the representatives of professional and higher level managers.
    "Conventional" (C) types prefer activities in which the structured rule-based handling of data is important, especially arranging-managing activities. Its strengths lie in computational and business skills, which imply that he rejects open, unstructured, artistic tasks. It emphasizes traditional virtues in a professional and private life. In counseling situations, he behaves very actively and it is hard for him to seek new careers and it calls for clear advice. The accountant and the lawyer examples fall under the rubric of conventional type.
According to this view, vocationally mature person is one who can express a vocational preference and personality profile which is consistent and differentiated. For Holland, career development is a continuous process that goes from childhood to old age, which is influenced by various factors and is comprised of different roles exercised by a person during his life.
The extensive debate on the Holland model focuses on two main issues: the first concerns the degree of correspondence between the intended person and the environment and methods to establish this correspondence, the second concerns the structure of relationships between different categories of interest identified.

The first point, which is important for this work given its methodological implications, can be summarized as follows. Holland's theory of vocational considered the central notion of "congruence" between the professional interests of individuals and types of jobs. It predicts whether the employment or vocational programs will be adapted (Brown, 2002)). Not only does it provide greater stability of interest, but it also impacts on satisfaction and job performance. Thus, people with greater congruence between their interests and their working environment should manifest better job performance, for example, fewer job changes, levels of motivation and job satisfaction higher.

 The results show that the average correlation rises to .21 degree of congruence between interests / employment and job satisfaction at .15 and congruence between job stability, to .06 between congruence and career success. These correlations are tenuous due to poor sampling procedures, methods of measurement and poorly adapted to the use of inappropriate indices of congruence. Other authors argue against that by the correlation coefficients that result are consistent with those normally found in studies of trait-behavior in the field of personality (Rounds & Tracey, 1990). They also stress the need to refine and strengthen the meta-analysis conducted on the relationship between congruence and satisfaction before concluding the validity of the measure of congruence based on the hexagon. The first demonstrations of the circular structure of RIASEC Holland are based on the method of principal components. The RIASEC model was then evaluated by procedures of multidimensional scaling or scaling and discriminate analysis.

Every human being can be described by a characteristic repertoire of attitudes and behavior. To the same extent by the people working in any environment and people by the given services and capabilities is shaped. For the assignment of persons to jobs Holland has put together a large number of professions in a World-of-work map. An optimum fit between person and professional profile leads to high job satisfaction and long residence time in the chosen profession.
This core idea of
​​matching or trait-and-factor theories can be attributed to Frank Parsons (1909) back, which - shaped by the American-liberal view of the human person must find his highest happiness - assumes that each person job-related psychological characteristics (interests, values, skills, knowledge, etc.) has, that every profession is distinguished by a specific feature or requirements, and finally the person-environment fit is a good predictor of job satisfaction and retention in the profession.
The other instruments developed by Holland and are characterized by easy operation, while the tests are carried out by the clients themselves; the Vocational Preference Inventory partially (CPI) was Holland's first publication. It was tasked to encourage the client to show interest or disinterest concerning 160 job titles. The test implies Holland's belief that thoughts, which are triggered by job titles to give information about their career choice. The current scope of this instrument is found among others in the technology and assessment as a complement of personality tests. The Vocational Exploration and Insight Kit (Veik) is designed for clients who are about their future careers in the dark. From 84 career planning maps out here looking for the person seeking advice, the most interesting, the debate is analyzed, reviewed the reasons why certain professions than appealing. In which up to five-hour test is to be achieved by this approach, which is divided into 15 steps that will increase the number of clients eligible for the professions. Moreover, the advice seekers a better understanding of specific occupations acquires in order to create realistic expectations.

       Brown, Duane (2002) “Career choice and development” John Wiley and sons
        Swanson, Laurel, Nadya, Faoud (2009) “Career Theory and Practice: Learning Through Case Studies” Sage


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