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July 31, 2013

Essay on Migraine

There are many types of migraine, all of them have the same features, and every person will suffer in a different way from this type of headache. Generally, however, migraine usually starts as a vague ache and then slowly develops into a continuous, aching and lively pain that one may feel excruciating pain at the front and back side of the head as well as at the temples. The pain is usually followed by vomiting and nausea and the sensitivity to sound and light.
The two most prominent types of migraine are migraine with aura( commonly known as classic migraine) and migraine without aura ( commonly known as common migraine)  Both of them are clinical syndromes characterized by headache and other related symptoms. Migraine with aura is also characterized through the central neurologic symptoms which usually accompany or precede the headache.  Patients, who have either one of these types of headaches, experience a premonitory and resolution phase. These phases may include symptoms like hypo activity, hyperactivity, despair, cravings for food and recurring yawning.

Migraine without Aura
The migraine without aura is not just a typical headache. The aching and pain from this type of headache is enough to make you stop doing you daily activities, along with nausea and vomiting.
migraine without aura is a new name, for most of the common kinds of migraine headache. Migraine without aura, however, is more prominently known as common migraine. Such migraines do not have an aura. Aura is the name given for an unknown symptom that some of the sufferers start to notice before the migraine starts. These types of migraine are more prevalent and occurring than the classic migraine and around 80% of the people who have migraines have migraine without aura.

Migraine without aura is a reoccurring headache disorder that is manifested in attacks last from 4 to 72 hours. The basic characteristics of this type of headache are one-sided location, pulsating quality (aching or variation with the heartbeat), temperate or rigorous intensity, aggravation by regular physical activity and association with photophobia (sensitivity to light), phonophobia (sensitivity to sound) and nausea.
Scientist still cannot find out what is the exact cause of migraines with aura. Most of the scientist suggests that the two chemicals in the brain; serotonin and dopamine play an important role in leading to migraines with aura. According to the theory, the two chemicals in the brain experience disturbances in their function. When this occurs, an overflow of immune response cells respond by flowing through the blood vessels to the brain. The blood vessels of the brain open up wide enough for those cells to collect. More chemicals are then released to help in controlling the muscle vessels. These vessels continuously open and constrict, resulting in a severe, usually throbbing headache.
Many other factors that are believed to cause migraines with aura include genetics and being obese. Substances, actions and environment may also be responsible for triggering migraines. It is known that migraines are often run in families. They commonly start in childhood and start to worsen over the years. However, it is believed that most of the boys rather than girls have migraines, and more adult women rather than adult men suffer from migraine. Over a period of time the amount of migraines that occur in a person become less and very rare as they reach the age of 50.
Whatever may be the cause of migraines with aura, one thing good about them is that even though they are very painful they are not life threatening.

Migraine with Aura
Migraine with Aura is the classic migraine and is less common than the common migraine (migraine without aura). Only around 15% of the sufferers of migraine have this type of headache.
most of the people that suffer from migraine have visual problems during the headache, however the person with migraine with aura the problems start from having neurological symptoms.  Usually, the aura starts from five to thirty minutes before the actual beginning of the headache. The sufferer may see wavy or blurred lines, flashing or dots lights, one may also experience blind spots or tunnel vision from one or both eyes. The aura can also include sound and visual illusions and disruptions in scents that have strange smells, taste or touch. This can become more uncomfortable and frightening it includes a feeling of numbness and pins and needles sensation or even difficulty in remembering or saying the correct word. These neurological events may be for sixty minutes and will disappear as the headaches starts. Approximately one in ten people have aura along with migraine. Aura symptoms only exist less than an hour and start before the headache symptoms, which is the same as that for common migraine.
The most common symptoms include visual disruption like flickering/flashing lights, zigzag lines or temporary blindness, numbness and indistinct speech. Other symptoms of aura include rigid neck, weakness on one side, partial paralysis, fainting or confusion.

Migraine with aura linked with hemorrhagic stroke in women
Patients that are suffering from migraine with aura have more chances for hemorrhagic stroke and all cause death, in addition to the already created high risk for ischemic stroke.
However, it is believed that more of the adult women have more chances of having hemorrhagic stroke if they have migraine with aura than men. Women that have migraine without aura have almost no risk of getting hemorrhagic stroke. Moreover, women that have a history of migraine with aura are twice as much likely to suffer from hemorrhagic stroke than the women who have active strokes or those that have migraines that just started. The low number of hemorrhagic strokes and the relatively low risk attribute, however, should warn against the definitive conclusion about migraine and hemorrhagic strokes. Women who stated they have active migraine without aura or migraine in the more distant past had no increased chance of hemorrhagic stroke.

Migraine with aura or without aura shares the same features in relation with headache, and differs nosologically in the existence or non existence of aura. The functions of aura generation is now very clear to everyone, based on imaging studies, and a common migraine pathophysiology for all sub kinds of migraine headaches are now reasonable to people, as it would look implausible that all the neurological events have differed pathogenic functions. Both of the major sub kinds of migraine clearly portray a perturbation of basic physiology and hire normal anatomic ways to produce the aura and headache, similarly like aura to a seizure.  Some of the data collected by scientist suggest that migraine with aura is more strongly related with anxiety disorder and despair rather than migraine without aura, however, the evidence is not conclusive. Despair and depression with anxiety disorder were more likely to occur in women having migraine with aura than those that had migraine without aura. In men, they found no difference in occurrence of depression, and anxiety disorders between migraine with aura and migraines without aura.


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