Jesus is presented by the Gospels as the incarnation of God. The spirit of God is incarnate in a man, and Jesus is thus the son of God and God made man. Date of birth is under the reign of Emperor Augustus with uncertainty. It marks the beginning of the Christian era.
According to the Gospels, Jesus of Nazareth was born in Bethlehem, Palestine, and the time of King Herod, on a trip from his parents. Since there was no room in inns, Mary, his mother gave birth in a cave that served as a barn. The child received the homage of the three "Magi", Melchior, Caspar and Balthazar, from the East to offer him gold, frankincense and myrrh.
Jesus was from Nazareth in Galilee: that is vital to be on his conviction. Yet his origins are in Judea as a descendant of King David. His genealogy is known and it is an old Jewish family, is that he was born in Bethlehem, but we can not specify the exact date of birth as the Gospels refer either to the reign of Herod the Great, who died in 4 BC, is the census of Quirinius, which may have occurred between 12 and 8, or 6 AD.
In any case, the date "official" birth of Jesus, that determines our era, was calculated in the fifth century on false premises. Jesus' ministry lasted about three years. To his thirtieth year, after being baptized by the prophet John the Baptist, who recognized in him the long-awaited Messiah, Jesus preached in Galilee and recruited his first disciples. His teaching mainly affected the poorest of the population and caused distrust of Jewish religious leaders, fearing political upheaval, accused him of taking too many liberties with the Act.
The environment in Galilean was very open, the population of cosmopolitan cities such as Caesarea, was much Hellenized, the Phoenician ports were nearby. So Jesus lived in contact with pagans and their language was Aramaic, which was even used in the synagogue. He learned to read and write the manual trade (carpenter) and his knowledge of the campaign cannot locate it more precisely in the society of his time, which reflects the concerns, however.
Jesus presented himself as one sent by God to ensure the salvation of men. It is offered as a sacrifice to save men from sin. His teaching is a call to conversion of men, who must first love God and neighbor. His message is aimed not only to Jews but to all men. His message is intended and universal. This calls into question the whole theory of the Chosen People Jewish protected by God Almighty.
After the scandal caused by Jesus Driving the Merchants from the Temple and a last meal with his disciples (the Last Supper), he was arrested and condemned as a political agitator. Finally, Jesus was put to death by order of the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, who is crucified.
Now if Jesus was the incarnation of God, how could he let him die? His disciples say when, three days after his death, Jesus rose (Feast of Easter for Christians), then after a sojourn on earth, he ascended into heaven (Ascension) from where he sent his men Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost, to enlighten them on the will of God.
The death and resurrection of Christ, which should be interpreted as a promise of resurrection for all believers, is the foundation of the Christian faith.
The religion of Christianity preaches ethos of love for humanity which was embodied in the persona of Jesus Christ as he felt the sorrows of his disciples as his own. The fight against pain and suffering is cleaner.(Bourgeault, 2008) Humanism and Christianity come together on this land not to make sense of what cannot have, but to offer some pointers on the road through the darkness of pain to open in the light of relief and compassion. Christ gives himself to suffering humanity as a master of compassion. It does not explain the presence of evil and suffering. It does not offer any explanation rational. But this offers the disciple to experience this Presence of compassion and engage in act of compassion, to follow Christ. This is why there have been a lot of missionary services since the birth of Christianity and the practice of serving humanity continues through the various social institutions: schools, hospitals, orphanages are working under the banner of Christianity.
Feudalism is a hierarchical organization of society based on the concept of vassals and overlords. The land lord offers protection to the vassal, the vassal in exchange for his lord to some of his crops (or property) and also in time of war, a number of days of "military service". Under this scheme, there are several hierarchical levels. Serfs were vassals of a baron. Lords are vassals of count. Counts are vassals of a duke. The dukes were vassals of the king. Each lord is lord of certain land occupied by his vassals. In addition, he has a field with a castle, where he lives. He also has an army. If he is rich, he can afford not to go to military service claimed by his lord and to send part of his army.
But all is not so simple, because then plays a complex tangle of possessions and various authorities. Europe was not made with countries as we know it today, and where kings were heads of state. A multitude of more or less powerful lords shared it.
The boundaries of kingdoms, duchies, counted, baronies, vary the pace of acquisitions and losses of territory. The reasons may be different. The land is acquired militarily, through gifts, marriage or by purchase (rare though). After the death of a lord, his kingdom is divided among his children, which sometimes leads to fragmentation, or the eldest becomes the suzerain of his brothers (who are then in the duchies the case of a royal family). When there are more children, it gets complicated.
This organization gives rise to constant political maneuvering and intrigues within the family, struggle for recognition of its sovereignty over that of a parent, with the support of another. Marriages are crucial as they allow at the same time to gain territory and to sign an alliance. (Esler, 2004)
With the advent of Christianity the Pope was the sovereign who had long competed with the major kings of Europe. Many times this has led to wars which had opposing effects. In particular, supporters of the Pope were torn between the loyalties they had towards the Roman Empire. In general, the pope had full spiritual authority and trying to sit a political authority. The Kings have a political authority, they sometimes attempt to gain a spiritual authority (for example during their coronation, some Kings had to be marked by the "holy oil" which gave them a legitimate direct link with God, and they claimed it. (Pelikan, 1975) After a time, the church put an end to this practice). Believers did not hesitate to buy their way to heaven by giving to the church all they can (the rich may pay the full construction of a church). Added to this were some taxes. The church and high church led a lifestyle that was not in accordance with the principles they preached with devotion. In contrast, some "saints" as St. Dominic live in abject poverty to, from town to town, delivering the word. Needless to say they were a minority. The pope's ultimate weapon against people who did not agree with him, especially against powerful lords (for others, the Inquisition can do it ...), it was "excommunication ". It does not look like much to non-believers, but was a lot of pressure weighing on the excommunicated because he was deprived of eternal salvation, but also religious mercy (almost all at the time) to enter a church, receive absolution, etc. ... This was a huge leverage for a lord because his excommunication could be applied to all its territory. Needless to mention that this discontent could lead to his vassals. Most of the time, lifting the punishment will be after a humiliating repentance. (Anderson, 1960)
Today, we often wonder how long it took to discover scientific truths that seem obvious. Scientists readily explain this slowness by an external object, in this case Christian thought and authority of the churches.
Do not forget that what we call "science" today is not until the seventeenth century, except perhaps for mathematics. What one finds, from Antiquity to the Renaissance, they are "natural philosophy" in which knowledge of nature is closely linked to metaphysical concerns.
In 1543, Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) presents a new world system which places the Sun at the center of the cosmos and the Earth rotates, with the other planets around it. The inconsistencies of planetary movements disappear, at least theoretically, and the order of heaven is fully subject to the pure geometry of the spheres.
It is this geometric harmony at the end of the century, seduced Kepler (1571-1630), then a student in theology at the Lutheran University of Tübingen. It establishes the three fundamental laws of planetary motion, from which Newton was to build his celestial mechanics.However, the heliocentric theory contradicted both Aristotle, the Bible and common sense.
Copernicus knew that Luther had called him crazy, and the Lutheran theologian Osiander was considered prudent to add a preface to Copernicus's book in which he explained that the book offered only a mathematical model, not the actual structure of the world. At the end of the century, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe Lutheran (1546-1601) had preferred to leave the Earth at the center of the world. The sun revolved around it and the other planets revolved around the Sun. All this caution due to the fact that the authority of the Bible had become stronger than ever, especially since the Protestant Reformation, and the old freedom of interpretation had disappeared. But it is in the Catholic Church, more structured and hierarchical than the Protestant churches, the scandal broke and it was "the Galileo affair."
Anderson, H. (1960) 'The Historical Jesus and the Origins of Christianity', in S.J.T. XIII, pp. 113ff
Bourgeault, Cynthia. (2008) The Wisdom Jesus: Transforming Heart and Mind—a New
Perspective on Christ and His Message. Boston: Shambhala.
Esler, Phillip F. (2004) The Early Christian World. Routledge
Pelikan, Jaroslav Jan. (1975) The Christian Tradition: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition
(100-600). University of Chicago Press
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