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July 17, 2013

Sample Essay on Impact of Technology on Healthcare

The health care situation is changing at a rapid pace. Several trends combined over the last few decades to create greater healthcare inequities. The advancement and innovation of technology in the field of medical science has confirmed immense boons on mankind. New medicines emerged everyday to mitigate a number of diseases. Pharmaceutical and biomedical companies work tirelessly to develop medicines for such diseases, which considered as incurable in the past like Cancer. Translating new technology into practice resulted greater per capita healthcare expenditure. Thus, technology and innovation in the medical field is an important reason for health care expenditure.  
The considerable development of health technology occurred over recent years in the field of medicines, diagnostic tools, telemedicine and surgical equipment has resulted in remarkable progress in terms of improved health, quality of life and organization and delivery of treatment. For example, in United States alone, approximately 70% improvement in survival after myocardial infarction is due to technological advances (Cutler & McClellan, 2009).
Despite the technological advancement in healthcare sector, there is a growing concern that paper medical records are still dominating the medical practices. Paper Medical records has enormous problems which limits sharing, analysis and evaluation among health care professional, hospitals, testing centers and pharmacies. Paper medical records have been found to be incomplete and reflect treatment only by a specific physician or organization; Not uniform; isolated (i.e., not easily shared); and they are inert (i.e., they can only be read, not processed interactively by other health care applications). These limitations make it difficult to effectively coordinate a patient’s care across multiple organizations. In effect, patients are the mechanism for sharing their health information. Most frequently everything is not told to the doctor because of non shared access to medical records. Misdiagnosis and treatment can take place.
Medical errors' is a general term used to denote all errors that occur within the health-care system, e.g., diagnostic errors, equipment failure, mishandled surgery and medication errors. Of these, medication errors can cause significant problems for physicians and patients and may result in serious patient morbidity and mortality, increased health-care costs and, in some cases, loss of confidence in the health-care system. According to Leaser et al. (1997), there is a chance of 3.99 medication errors per 1000 for hospital patients. The percentage of medical errors occurred among Children is higher, i.e. approximately 9% while about 5%, occurred in the emergency department. However, the majority of these errors, almost 80%, are not significant but in the remaining 20%, 6% were potentially fatal while 14% were potentially serious.
The Information and Communications Technology (ICT) can lend itself to multiple applications in the health sector. It has made considerable progress and it is widely agreed that it can contribute to improving the quality and safety of care and their relevance to patient needs, while strengthening efficiency. Proponents of the use of ICT in the Health argue in particular that it will reduce the number of medication errors.
By understanding how ICT can create "value" in health systems, we can make better decisions on current and future initiatives in this area and better justify new investments and highlight factors result. The term "value" as used in this report involves a look at how ICT can produce results that are wider than the usual metric commonly used in the analysis of return on investment. In health care, it is difficult to identify a standardized production process and, depending on the context, the nature of the results and their mode of production vary considerably, and the nature and mix of inputs. For example, if a hospital uses ICT to enhance the quality of care or change the range of services provided, the costs and financial benefits result for the hospital depends on the way care is given to the patients and the extent of transformation required in the tasks and processes. How ICT is used and context of use are two key elements for maximizing the potential benefits. However, these issues also carry a significant opportunity to improve the quality of health care and reduce the costs through ICT - increasing the efficiency of health care delivery and reducing the supply of services less valuable. E- healthcare provided benefits in four broad categories of interrelated objectives:
         Improve the quality of care and increase efficiency;
         Reduce operating costs of clinical services;
         Reduce administrative costs;
         Enable the development of treatment protocols fully
Regarding the quality of care provided, different studies agree generally on the fact that the greatest contribution of ICT to healthcare is to significantly increase the patient safety. Three types of medical errors are common, errors or careless of inattention, misjudgment in planning (errors rules) and errors resulting from a lack of knowledge (mistakes relating to knowledge) (Glodzweig and Shekelle, 2009; Chaudhry et al. 2006; Scott et al. 2005). In 2001, the Institute of Medicine indicated that to improve patient safety, we must have an information system capable of avoiding at the outset the errors produced and easier for healthcare professionals and the acquisition of sharing information on quality improvement.
Tools that provide alerts on potential serious health issues, a patient or a risk of aggravation and facilitate the communication between care providers are among those mentioned that have substantial impact on outcomes (Bates et al., 2003). Communication between patients and providers care is also critical to safety, including interface hospital / primary care. The elements relating to patient safety have been incorporated into various ICT systems deployed, which facilitates obtaining medical information, such as online access to clinical guidelines or databases of drugs as well as tools to clinical decision.
Nevertheless, a major side effect of ICT on health and patient safety the overall quality of care provided is their role in improving the compliance with recommendations or protocols of care (Chaudhry, 2006) especially in the management of chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes or heart failure. These conditions require follow-up patients regularly to monitor changes in clinical parameters and quickly detect any difference; this task can be greatly facilitated by ICT.
Regarding the efficiency (value / cost), the most positive effect frequently cited is the reduced use of health care services. Sharing information more effectively, such as sending mail rapid reporting of hospital discharge or use of computerized systems medical prescription that provide decision support to point of care delivery may reduce the use of laboratory tests and radiology (Rothschild et al., 2000) - sometimes a percentage up to 24% according to Chaudhry et al. (2006). In most cases, the aid element of Clinical decision may also affect the behavior prescriptive and save money by educating physicians about the "efficiency comparison" of different medical treatments. This can be a means of limit the existing costly services to cases where they provide clinical benefits superior to other cheaper services. These beneficial effects on the use of health care is more sensitive than using more elements of support making available and the period is longer (Government Accountability Office, 2003).
The use of archiving and transmission of images that allow the capture, visualization, digital storage and transmission of medical images has been found favorably by both referring physicians and radiologists. The Doctors generally report that they were able to reduce the number of repeated examinations and treatment decisions more quickly. Efficiency gains would include in the ability of see more patients and interpret the results of diagnostic tests more quickly - which is sometimes called the "flow". The cycle is shorter waiting time of the examination and results are lower, which also allows shortening the delay before starting treatment. This increases the capacity, the effectiveness of therapeutic treatment and the degree of patient satisfaction.
This particular study tries to identify the impact of technology on healthcare. Thus, in other words, this research study has the following objectives:

Research Objectives

Purpose of the Study

The aim of this study is to discuss the impact of technology on healthcare. This research study does not test a hypothesis but relies upon statistical data from pre-existing sources and tries to answer the research questions presented in the study through the conduction of quantitative research. In other words, the purpose of the study is to determine what impact (positive or negative) does technology have on Quality of health care? And Does E health has the potential to increase safety, provide better health care quality, and create significant savings to health care cost?
In the first research question it is basically the Quality of healthcare that acts as an independent variable of research implying that a change in this variable will cause a subsequent change in all other values that are being obtained. In the second research question it is the E-health that acts as the independent variable and changes taking place in health care over a period of time acts as the dependent variable whose values have to be determined in the research.   

Limitation of the Study

This study is limited to using pre existing (secondary) data. It is limited in that it is student level research and the most preferred method as access to required data can be obtained at little or no cost to the researcher. Journal, periodicals, newspaper articles and internet were the sources used to prepare this research paper. Thus for student level research it is the most preferred method because it is not possible for students to perform expensive research.


Assumptions

The purpose of eHealth is to improve the quality and cost of health care. Technology namely Health Information creates a negative notion for some people as privacy issues arises. People fear change but it is inevitable. Resistance to change still exists among patient and health care providers. Adoption to health technology may be a slow process and met with some resistance.

Theoretical Framework

Three theories have been identified that relates to this study: Maslow Theory (1943), Equity theory (1963) and Diffusion Theory. Maslow theory explained why people are driven by particular needs at particular times. According to Maslow that when one need is fulfilled, the next order of needs become important to an individual.
Equity Theory: Equity theory discusses the relational satisfaction of a person depends on the fair or unfair distribution of resources. The escalating cost of health care services demands a commensurate in quality of care.
According to Gregg Orr “the tipping points” idea finds its origins in Diffusion theory, (Everett Rogers 1962) which is a set of generalizations regarding the typical spread of innovations within a social system.

Definition of Terms

1.      ACPOE - Ambulatory Computerized Physician Order Entry
2.      ADE - Adverse Drug Event  (ADE) – “An appreciably harmful or unpleasant reaction resulting from an intervention related to the use of a medicinal product, which predicts hazard from future administration and warrants prevention or specific treatment, or alteration of the dosage regimen, or withdrawal of the product ” (Frankel, 2000, p. 1212)
3.      CPOE - Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) – “A software application that supports the ordering of medications, diagnostic tests, interventions, and referrals by providers in ambulatory clinics and physician offices in both hospital and community settings” (Johnston, Pan, & Walker, 2004)
4.      EPS - Electronic Prescribing System  – “Computerized systems that clinicians use to prescribe medications” (Bell et al., 2004, pp. W4-305)
5.      HIE - Health Information Exchange  – The means by which Health Information is moved electronically throughout the Healthcare system.
6.      HIPAA - Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
7.      HIT - Health Information Technology (HIT) - is the area of IT involving the design, development, creation, use and maintenance of information systems for the healthcare industry.
8.      MPE - Medication Prescription Errors  – “Errors in the process of ordering, transcribing, dispensing, administering, or monitoring medication” (Kaushal, Shojania& Bates, 2003, p.1410)

Scope of the study

                Since pre-existing data comprise the core areas of the research that has been conducted it would not be possible for us to provide the precise size and numbers of the people that have been used in the research. However location for research has particularly been dedicated to United States and its different health institutions.  




Historical Background

With the passage of time and the unprecedented increase in technological innovations that has taken place around the world one can say that the global health sector cannot possibly be insulated from all the major changes that have taken place in the contemporary arena. In such times when the visage of the health sector is changing rampantly there are some changes that need to be incorporated within the nursing sector as well through which a comprehensively designed framework of tasks and strategies can be formulated which need to be fulfilled by the nurses in the medical sector today (Hutton, 2008).
One of the major tools that have been devised by hospitals today for their development is the concept of sharing information and its subsequent exchange with the help of the IT department which acts as a major impediment in determining the effectiveness and efficiency of any medical organization (Vastag, 2008).
The presence of these changes in modern hospitalization and medical care dictate the rules and regulations of electronic health through which the delivery of health services to patients with the usage of electronic devices and gadgets. The concept of E-health is one of fundamental changes that can be proposed in the health sector through which one can dictate the progress and development of the technological sector that may proliferate the health sector in recent times (Pronovost et al., 2009).
Technology allows health care providers to collect, store, retrieve and transfer information electronically.  The literature found that in regards to the value and benefits of health information technology in recent times. There continues to be low adoption rates and acceptance of hit systems. Medical errors continue, lack of continuity of care. The High cost of implementation and adoption of technology continues to create barriers.

Existing Studies

Some providers are concerned that implementation of HIT can produce more medical errors. A recent study identified unintended consequences of health technological systems (Ash et, al; 2009). The consequences identified were: Extra time requirements, work flow issues, change in power structure, mistake order entry and the potential for over dependence of technology ,with identification root cause analysis can be done and can lead to successful adoption and dele some concern about adoption of HIT.
Comprehensive studies have been done to analyze the Impact of Health Information Technology on Quality of Health Care. Scholars like Kaushal, Shojania & Bates (2003) and   Kuperman et al. (2007) suggested that Health Information Technology i.e. COPE, with clinical decision support, can lower medication error rates by 55%.
Similarly, a study performed before and after cohort trial of HIT on the impact of outpatient testing, including full blood count, urea and electrolyte and urine culture. The findings were that the intervention group saw a reduction in testing while the control group saw increases in testing. The study concludes that such increase efficiency of care by reduction in outpatient test (Collin et.al, 2008).
The implementation of HIT system involves many stakeholders and therefore a number of perceptions. One qualitative study evaluated physician attitudes as they relate to ACPOE and its range of functions by surveying a sample of 262 primary care physicians with the response rate of (55% (n=144) (Gandhi et al., 2005).
Those who responded were primarily concerned that using ACPOE would take up too much time, which they feared would both detract from the time that could have been spent with patients and retard the overall clinician work process (Gandhi et al., 2005).
 Such concerns should be dealt with to promote extensive provider approval of the technology; it is not enough to reiterate some of the more positive effects of the technology, such as improving the trail of the more positive effects of the technology, such as improving the path of test administered and the warnings given regarding omitted test (Gandhi et al., 2005).
Physician and patient access to electronic medical records (EMR) would form a relationship: Where both parties will be well informed regarding medical history and medication use. Interventions addressing issues of outpatients drug safety needs to be addressed by patient and environmental aspects unique to outpatient settings (Budnitz & Layde, 2007).
In Healthcare, patients suffer due to lack of information integrity. According to a study by Frank and his coworkers, number of deaths has increased every year due to the misuse of drugs. According to them number of deaths was 198,000 in 1995 which has increased to 2,180,000 in 2000 (Ernst and Grizzle, 2010).
 Research Director for Gartner Healthcare said that, “70 percent of drug-related problems could be prevented by ensuring information integrity for prescription medication through safely prescribing and ordering it”. He further said, “about 30 percent of problems are caused by bad handwriting (incorrect content and insufficient process)” (Gillette, 2010; p.32).
 Information system provides information integrity in healthcare units which ultimately avoids the following hazards:
  • Insufficient information about the drugs patient is taking
  • Insufficient information about the drugs prescribed by the doctor
  • Insufficient information about patient’s history
  • Misreading of prescribed drugs
  • Incorrect dosage of prescribed drugs
  • Incorrect or duplicate payments by patients
  • Incorrect billing etc.
Information system greatly improved the quality of healthcare. It has especially influenced the area of diagnosing diseases and medical research. Computer images are now widely used in Healthcare. The technique of computer imaging was started to implement in healthcare in 1972 when Godfrey Hounsfield had invented the first Computed Tomography Scanner, often called as CT Scanner. With the advent of computer technology in the field of medical imaging it would become much easier to perform such procedures like Angiography etc.
In future, when Information system become common in the healthcare centers, a patient can easily contact any doctor anywhere in the world with the help of his Personal computer and send his medical history or medical images to that doctor (Bates, 2008). Doctors can also share information between them and can consult each other’s advice by sending the medical images of the patient. Patients of remote areas can also contact their doctors and get examined by them by just using their computers (Sausser, 2008).
 Although computers can be used for prescribing also, but the doctors, at present, usually do not use this facility. But in future when technology become much more advance, it would be possible that doctors used the Artificial Intelligence system of their Personal computers and can prescribe medicines and diagnose disease by just entering the medical images of their patients into their Personal Digital Assistants (Freudenheim, 2009).
One of the things that need to be considered in this context is the fact that in the situations of e-healthcare environment it is clearly apparent that the environment of health and medicine are increasingly information intensive. This means to say that healthcare organizations make use of technological devices and gadgets to support clinical exercises and operations rather than accentuating upon the physical interaction with patients which has its own drawbacks but can be sidelined for the moment as it is out from the scope of our discussion (Lundy, Lundy & Janes, 2009).

Instrumentation

            There remains less doubt about the fact that not only the health industry but also corporate mainstream has started to develop concern regarding the health developments of their staff. Hence in one way or the other developing a safe and healthy future, it is first and foremost important that the concerned individual must develop a routine through the help of which he can ensure that he adhering to a normal lifestyle.
For this it is extremely important that he is provided proper guidance regarding the ways in which he can develop this routine in an effective manner and at the same time can also receive a proper evaluation regarding his performance in terms of acquiring a better lifestyle. 
Another important feature that needs to be mandatorily incorporated in the devised program is the way through which it can be made credible. The only way in which the level of authenticity in this evaluation process can be enhanced is with the help of synchronizing the entire process with the usage of technology.  
It is important in this context that proper data is collected and formulated it to make diagnosis. These analyses help her in finding the critical areas which requires improvement. Collaborative problems are also identified in order to help the community to have a mutual healthy life and environment to live within.
She identifies the strength of a person in having a better lifestyle. Health assessment agendas are not limited to physical body strength; inspections of community’s life style are also a part of the plan. The person’s functionality is measured by collecting and analyzing physiological, spiritual, socioeconomic and cultural variables. The culture is also involves in the health system of a person as it is involved in the health system of a community. It is necessary to examine the culture of the patient to find out his or her health status (Lundy, Lundy & Janes, 2009).
The type and quality of data required and studied vary from country to country. Some assessment agencies have only need data on efficacy, while others also want to obtain information on cost-effectiveness. To this one can be added request for data on the organizational consequences, social and ethics of a particular product (Sorenson et al, 2008). Other differences relate to the role of manufacturing data, the use of randomized controlled trials and the use of modeling Economic.
Certainly, there is a clear preference for data from these tests, but they are very limited in that they do cannot usually compare all possible treatments or collect a comprehensive set of economic data on the health. Many manufacturers are developing models to try to resolve these problems, but the bodies of Technology Assessment health does not always take into account because they are concerned about the technical accuracy or conflicts of interest, or because they have their own models.
Another issue of increasing importance is the portability of data. Generally, we consider that the clinical and epidemiological are common to many environments, while the use, cost and cost-effective resources are more specific to a particular context. The transferability of economic data is particularly relevant in the case of countries with low and middle incomes, where resources to conduct an economic analysis of health are limited (Rutten & Gulacsi, 2008).
The use of general models applied to local data, despite their limitations, may solve some of these problems. Another solution is to set priorities based on assessments of products or instruments which are already assessed by other systems.

Barriers of ICT Implementation

The implementation of ICT is a notoriously complex and expensive. At each stage of the cycle of implementation / adoption / use various economic and social factors can disrupt the process. Many initiatives will turn out that "drivers successful techniques "without ever leading to a widespread implementation and economies of scale magnitude.
While end users are satisfied with the technology and that the initial objectives are achieved, it often, projects do not reach a more mature stage and do not produce the expected benefits (despite the success of projects drivers and application of ICT).  Based on observations collected so far, the success of the implementation and widespread adoption of ICT is closely linked to ability to overcome three major obstacles:
·         Inadequate incentives and the need for a fair distribution benefits and costs - with a pay system that often do not reward providers which improve the quality of care nor help them invest in ICT systems, lack of resources may deter to develop these systems, particularly as the costs associated with the adoption of new technologies are not equitably shared among stakeholders
·         Lack of standards set by mutual agreement and consistently applied - Providers of health care face a lack of uniformity of medical terminology, clinical records and data storage and the multiplicity of mechanisms put in place to facilitate interconnection and communication between ICT systems individuals. Due to market fragmentation and the rapid evolution of technology solutions for lack of standards and compliance with existing rules, the caregivers who invest in technology infrastructure exposed to high risk of failure and low yields. The ability to share information (interoperability) also depends entirely on the adoption and enforcement of standards.
·         Concerns about the protection of privacy and Confidentiality - Due to the sensitive nature of information health and widespread uncertainty about the applicability of existing legal frameworks for ICT systems of health
The most commonly cited barrier to adoption of HIT were capital cost (66%), systems that do not meet needs (54%) uncertainty about return on investment (50%) concern system will be obsolete (44%). The average physician falls to the right of the adoption curve in terms of use of CPOE in medical practice.
The adoption curve parallels the general population tendency to be conservative and cautious and conservative when investing in new ideas technology and services. (Rogers 1962). The perceive cost of installing HIT system with the lack of assurance that these systems will provide what is needed for reducing errors and improving quality of Health  Care is a Hugh barrier.

Significant Studies

There is no standard method for conducting assessments. Although most systems of health technology assessment using similar methods, there are differences due to the limitation of resources and other factors.
The main methodological issues include the methods of evaluation, measuring the benefits in terms of health, choice of a reference model, taking into account differences between patient populations, taking into account the applicable costs, taking into account the uncertainty of available data (Sorenson et al, 2008).
Several of these aspects, including measurement of benefits in terms of health, the choice of a reference model and the comparability of models treatment and population, have an impact on portability estimates of cost-effectiveness (Stratton et al., 2009).
These aspects include also the quality and transparency of methods, depending on policymakers and other interested parties or not to accept data obtained through evaluations. Most countries have published for stakeholders and analysts, guidance on rules on data and methods, although the level of detail and transparency of these materials is variable.
Local differences in capabilities, patient populations, health needs and available budget may also interfere in the implementation of decisions or national guidelines. In addition, local decision makers may wait before starting treatment to providing patients, an evaluation has been carried out properly form and guidelines have been formulated. 
This situation is aggravated when the decision and the overall evaluation process are not accepted by interested parties. For example, a recent study on initiatives evaluation of health technologies in the EU has concluded that Doctors do not alter their practices based on the results of Reviews.
 In the same vein, it may happen that local providers and other stakeholders consider the process evaluation as policy processes, unofficial or circumstantial, or they do not have the resources, skills and knowledge necessary to correctly interpret and use evaluation reports or guidance.
 Once the databases compiled and analyzed by the agency competent, interested parties may propose a point of view broader and more qualitative information on the relative value of a product, for example providing advice about side effects, possible uses and impact on daily life. 
In fact, insofar as the Health technologies may affect the health and life of many people, it was argued that the statement and taking into account the values ​​of a wide range of stakeholders, imperative for ethical and social decision making (Sheldon, 2010). 
The process challenge, when it exists, is a third possibility. In several countries, interested parties may challenge the conclusions or opinions agencies responsible for health technology assessment. Process formal challenge can impose consistency, increase transparency assessment processes and decision making, and reduce risks of legal action. These mechanisms for the participation of stakeholders promote ownership of decisions or directions from the citizens and professionals, resulting in a higher probability assessments health technologies effectively guide decision-making and clinical practice. 
Moreover, greater representation of parties of stakeholders may suggest that a body score is independent, neutral and consistent with the makers and users of Technology - all vital to strengthening the impact of Reviews. However, strengthening the role of stakeholders must be made cautiously, because the influence of different groups on the process of policy development and decision making which result is not clearly defined (Bridges & Jones, 2008). 
The technical evaluation of health technology may prevent some stakeholders to actively involved, particularly if the results of different studies do are not explained and that contain relevant evidence limitations. 
It is therefore,  extremely important to ensure transparency regarding stakeholder participation, if the contribution of the latter and their relative impact on the evaluation and resulting decisions are clearly defined and reported by the assessment bodies. Systems should also ensure that key stakeholders are better trained in the presentation of technical data to groups consisting of unprofessional.
Insofar as the process of health technology assessment has several levels, specialized agencies and governments could take a number of measures to improve assessments. The time required for evaluations and their timing are crucial for assessment bodies as for other interested parties. Due to differences in strategies and objectives of evaluation systems, the duration of assessments varies. 
The simple evaluations can be made in a month while the complex studies can take over a year. The duration of evaluation process is due in part to the complexity and magnitude of the task in question, especially if it involves a major consultation interested parties. However, this period cannot be unlimited in since decisions must be made on time. We must indeed allow access to innovative treatments and better services healthcare and preserve current recommendations or directions.
There is a general trend towards the use of mechanisms to provide guidance on the use of new technologies immediately after or before being placed on the market (Murphy et al, 2008).These mechanisms are accelerated assessments, early warning devices and technological systems, such as the SBU in Sweden, the High Health Authority in France, the Finnish Office for assessment Health care technology (FinOHTA) and the Basque Office for Technology health (OSTEBA) in Spain. The FinOHTA, for example, conducts studies accelerated when it is necessary to quickly obtain information on a particular health technology.
 In general, these studies rely on international evaluation reports and findings are analyzed, evaluated and applied in the Finnish context. Since 2005, NICE uses the STAs to quickly analyze a technology for a single indication. Only data manufacturers are included in the study, interested parties and specialists are not routinely consulted. 
The objective of such mechanism is to reduce the assessment periods at approximately 15 weeks products whose marketing is close to or treatment new and effective in terms of survival. To date, NICE has launched more than 25 STAs, mainly for anticancer drugs.
Conditional approval, or the tool designated by the expression "With coverage evidence development", for example, the technology on the market under certain conditions, usually for a specified period, after which its utility is subject to reconsideration. These mechanisms facilitate patient access to new promising technologies "while continuing to produce data. Further to reduce the uncertainties in the value of technology "(Hutton, Trueman & Henshall, 2008).
 They push the industry to be innovative and reduce the potential opportunity costs incurred by decisions inappropriate in terms of coverage, so, for example, when applies a limited reimbursement for technologies that, after the decision initial coverage, are effective in terms of clinical and point of terms costs. 
Many systems, including that of the High Health Authority in France and the Council of Health Insurance in the Netherlands, considering conditional use permits, which were mostly used with promising technology but not yet proven indications associated with limited alternative treatments (with low level of satisfaction of needs). In the Netherlands, each time a decision to reimburse a new innovative drug is taken, a reassessment is then applied in order to determine whether claims of therapeutic use, efficiency and profitability can be confirmed using real data.
These processes can reduce some of the uncertainty inherent in evaluation of health technologies, and thus facilitate decision-making. In addition, interested parties may be less inclined to challenge negative decisions if it is possible to conduct a reassessment from other data.
 However, for these processes are effective, it is essential to collect additional data and policy makers need to reassess their decisions. Important practical aspects must then be taken into account, such as logistics and financing of new tests or studies after the decision to repay, or the possibility removing a product from the list of drugs reimbursed if the results further proving weak.
Transparency of methods and processes of technology assessment health is a key element on which interested parties (and the general public) are based in welcoming these processes and decisions subsequently adopted, and may also promote the rational use of assessments for decision-making process by ensuring systematic, open and impartial. 
However, as has been said before above, the methods and assessment process usually lack transparency. This observation applies to a range of areas, ranging from the theme selection criteria for data evidence and methods to decision making.
There are several strategies to improve transparency. The use of methodological guidelines for standardized assessment Health technology allows for better assimilation of the concept of transparency, particularly if these instructions are clear and understandable.
Several assessment agencies are collaborating through organized networks to develop a framework or guidelines based on current best practice. If some of them make available to the public the evidence and the documents used in the evaluation process, communication of evidence and accompanying documents is generally limited. 
This state of fact may be due to the confidential nature of trade data often used in evaluations, but also the absence of a formal communication or the lack of resources devoted to managing information exchange. The main documents should, as far possible, be accessible to the public and interested parties should to study this and make comments and advice.

Summary

The advancement and innovation of technology in the field of medical science has confirmed immense boons on mankind. It draws the line between the old era and the modern era of brightness, between human backwardness and progress, between the life of miseries and the epoch of happiness and knowledge, between men’s foolish beliefs and scientific inquiry and research.
The present era is the period of rapid change and innovations. New medicines emerged everyday to mitigate a number of diseases. These medicines reduce the chances of coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, and heart attack etc. Pharmaceutical and biomedical companies work tirelessly to develop medicines for such diseases, which considered as incurable in the past like Cancer.
Biomedical companies also working on different vaccines to eliminate diseases like Hepatitis C, which leads to chronic infections and liver failures. Similarly Therapeutic vaccine is best for preventing cancers in general and vaccine for papilloma virus is supposed to prevent cancers of cervix in particular.
After the introduction of a technology for patient care a significant improvement in formal quality of health care has been observed. Positive aspects of the introduction of computerized health care are of particular increasing extent, completeness and readability of documentation.
Also, the patients experience a major quality improvement by using technology in health care. The quality improvement in health care emerged after the introduction of specialized software and other technology gadgets. However, the medical staff obviously needs time, to properly utilize the new and useful tools of technology. Technology makes the documentation more standardized and the care plans more acceptable for the patients.
The literature suggests that the benefits of, Barriers to and other elements relevant to the role of technology in the Quality, safety, consistency and continuity of health care were examined. Perceptions of technological implementations from both provider and patient view were discussed. The literature presents the issue of whether eHealth is efficient to provide quality and cost effectiveness of patient care.  
 This research study does not test a hypothesis but does rely upon the analysis conducted through statistical measures using preexisting data in finding answers of the research questions. As the topic is broad which requires people’s view on this topic, the researcher will use the quantitative approach of analyzing the data (Bryman, 2008).
Although many other studies have also been conducted on this topic, but the main purpose of this study is to develop a framework of understanding whether the situation is improving or not; this can also be ensured through quantitative approach of research (Mason, 2009). At the same time, researcher also wants to judge the efficacy and efficiency of healthcare technology which has been discussed in the literature review part of this study. According to Popper (2009) in order to derive knowledge from an observation, it is necessary that the researcher must know the topic.  The researcher can form a result by reading and immersing into the preexisting data.

Data Collection and Recording Procedure

Journals, periodicals, newspaper articles, magazines and e-zines are all the sources that were used in the preparation of this report. The study will use the quantitative methodology because the field of this study is very vast. This study utilized inductive reasoning which requires that data collection and analytic processes be conducted in light with additional data. The analysis therefore occurs as an open step in conceptually interpreting the data set as a whole by using analytic strategies.
Although there are many advantages of secondary research analysis but the most significant of them is ease of use. In previous times, researcher had to explore libraries and heaps of data for finding relative literature but now the Internet has made the life of researcher much easier. The researcher is now able to access the relevant data with much ease and convenience.
This method of research analysis is much more economical as compared to the primary research. The researcher, with the help of secondary research method, can get access to the required data at no or very little cost. Thus, for student’s level research it is the most preferable method because it is not possible for students to perform expensive research.
Secondary research analysis method also helps the researcher to clarify the research question. Secondary research is always used to clarify the focus of the research.
It is less time consuming. Secondary research can be completed in just two to three weeks because there is lot of data available on almost every topic.

Methodological Limitations


As far as the limitations of secondary research method are concerned, the most important limitation is the quality of research. As the primary research is usually self-governed it is important that it should be analyzed properly before using in secondary research. It is a matter of serious concern that the researcher must evaluate the validity and reliability of information used as a secondary research.  
In some cases, if the topic is too unique, researcher may find it difficult to find proper material on the topic. In such cases the researcher has to rely on secondary data which is according to his need.
Sometimes it is difficult for the researcher to find the complete research free of cost because some researcher only provide the portions of their research for free and ask payment for the complete study.
It also happens frequently that researcher can find his relevant information in a research which is too old. Research for rapidly changing industries and topics require that the research must be up to date. 
As the advantages of using secondary research is much more than its disadvantages, it is suggested that this study will use the method of secondary research after managing and reducing the disadvantages related to it.




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