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August 5, 2013

Essay on Adolescent Suicide

Adolescent Suicide

A nation’s prosperity today depends on legion of skilled, educated workers; societies with masses of peasants trapped in ignorance and illiteracy cannot compete in the global economy. It is not surprising, then, that rates of movement upward or downward in social class between generations – inter generational mobility – are not significantly higher in the United States than they are in other developed nations (Winfield et. al., 1989). 
Parent Child Relationship
Parental behavior may make an important contribution in the personality and character building of an individual. In one study, for example, emphatic concern for others at age thirty-one was greater for those subjects whose family life at age five was characterized by high scores on four factors: father’s involvement in child care; mother tolerance of the child’s dependent behavior; her inhibition of the child’s aggression; and her satisfaction with the maternal role. On the other hand, Family abuse and violence surely act as a destructive force in our society. They produce consequences that sometimes reverberate throughout the victim’s lives and even in future families. Victims of incest suffer alienation and other emotional difficulties into adulthood. Abused and neglected children are more likely to become violent, criminal adults (Alexander, Moore and Alexander, 1991).
  In general, abused children show a variety of difficulties, including aggressiveness, problems relating to peers, lack of empathy, depression, and trouble in school.  The child’s own behavior seemed to have little long-term significance, although more disobedience in the home was associated with lower levels of emphatic concern in adulthood.  Family abuse and violence surely act as a destructive force in our society. They produce consequences that sometimes reverberate throughout the victim’s lives and even in future families. Trend of suicide and suicidal behavior is greatly found in physically abused grade school children (Robbins & Alessi, 1985), sexually abused children (Adams-Tucker, 1982) and neglected children (Khan, 1987). Thus, parent child disturbed relationship is one of the major causes of suicide itself (Sabbath, 1969) but as a whole it plays an important role in the overall poverty and low social condition of African American which ultimately increases the chances of suicide. 
Although several factors are associated with adolescent suicide, the fact remains that family problems are among the top reasons cited by suicidal adolescents. The family atmosphere becomes disturbed usually after parental separation. We find such features as the presence of parental conflict and marital, physical or emotional abuse of children, a climate of violence, the alcoholism of a parent, the indifference of parents towards the young, the immaturity of the mother, difficulties or a lack of communication, misunderstanding, lack of support, difficulties in negotiating the duties of their individuality, negative attitudes or neglectful parents to the young, the absence of emotional involvement, abandonment or rejection of the young.
At the level of parental control, excessive control may discourage independence and self-realization. The adolescent may feel dominated to the intolerable demands of his or her parents. Conversely, inconsistency or lack of control may reflect the indifference of parents towards the youth, with its consequences of neglect, emotional neglect and educational characteristics that are common among suicidal adolescents.
The adolescent may be influenced by the fact that people in his entourage have attempted suicide or committed suicide. It occurs when a lower level of inhibition is seen against the suicidal act. In adolescents, the failure is another major reason that leads them to suicide. Losing someone you love is one of the hardest events to overcome, regardless of age. Most teenagers live at some point with a broken heart. By cons it is observed that suicidal youth are engaged more intensively in their relationship and that the rupture leaves very deep traces on their minds. The pain is intense, it becomes unbearable and the younger feels he will never recover, that his suffering will never end.
Social isolation is another reason for suicide in adolescents.  Some suicidal adolescents are alone; they have the impression of being rejected by their peers. Many have a network of friends, although they are experiencing relationship difficulties with their peers. However, they are not receptive to the support that their peers can offer to them. They prefer to go it alone. They are convinced that nobody can help them as they need to be. The suicidal adolescents believe that their isolation is more emotional than physical.
Suicidal crisis occurs following a loss that can take different forms: unmet needs as perceived loss of support and love. The loss may also be in terms of loss of identity and self-esteem. The emotional and affective-related loss is important. The intense reactions to loss and adolescents have a poor control of anger and impulsivity. When the losses and stress accumulates, the reaction of the young person may be desperate and indifferent. If the youth continues to fall off the support system it will increase feelings of despair and disbelief as their circumstances changes.
 Evidence of ongoing risk of suicide is more identifiable by the professionals. Prevention depends on the exchange of information between family members and trained professionals. Not maintaining an anxiety that could become contagious. One in four suicides is the result of a thoughtless impulse. It is therefore not predictable. The occurrence of depression increases the risk of suicide among adolescents.
They can be interpreted as calls for help, inviting the others to look for other warning signs are more specific. All depressed adolescents are at risk of suicide. The young people do not report spontaneously their state and level of depression that compounds the issue. A child, a teenager becomes sad and lazy, his grades are falling down. In order to lessen the suicidal tendency, the parents and psychological mentor should take time to listen to grievances of the adolescents.
The person in a state of manic depression shows bouts of excitement revealing a “flight of ideas.” Depression is the most common mental illness. When depression is of manic-depressive origin, it is hereditary. So there is a hereditary risk of suicide, demonstrated in particularly in twins. This is a vulnerability but not inevitable. Above all, the occurrence of depression is mentioned as warning signals.
The episodes of depression are gradual hardly noticeable especially among children and the elderly. (Robbins, 1985) It is a commonplace that depressed people often refuse to take any help. It takes patience to repeat that there may be a diseased part in his condition and that many people with similar disorders are now restored.
Below the depression, low self-esteem and self-efficacy, school dropout, failure to resolve interpersonal problems are paths of suicide. Before the stage of addiction, many teenagers have a habit of getting drunk. If they are sad, a simple drunkenness may end in suicide. The majority of people hospitalized for attempted suicide were intoxicated by alcohol.
Half of patients with alcohol dependence were less than 32 years: the despair that arises from this dependence or another drug is the cause of many suicides. Suicidal thoughts are not expressed because the alcoholic is unaware of its effects on him.

Adams-Tucker, C. (1982). Proximate effects of sexual abuse in childhood: A report on 28
children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 1252-1256.

Alexander, Pamela, C.  Sharon, Moore and Elmore, R. Alexander III. (1991, August). What is
transmitted in the intergenerational transmission of violence? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53.

Robbins, D., & Alessi, N. (1985). Depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior in adolescents.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 588-592.

Winfield, Idee, Richard, T. Campbell, Alan, C. Kerchoff, Diane, Everett and Jerry, M. Trot
(September, 1989). Career Processes in Great Britain and the United States. Social Forces, 68, pp. 284 – 308.



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