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August 22, 2013

Essay on Chemistry Behind Food

Chemistry behind food
Feeding the market: what happens there in the food industry today? What processes the foods go through before finally reaching us? What are the problems associated with the food process? Food processing involves changing or transforming raw materials, plant or animal, healthy food more appetizing and edible. Thanks to plastic containers and other solutions, food processing also gives us a way to extend the shelf life of perishable foods normally. It meets the needs of modern urban populations, and can offer in any season, and no quantity limits, a wide choice of foods.
Food chemistry refers to the chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods. The biological substances include such items as meat, poultry, lettuce, beer, and milk as examples. It is akin to biochemistry in its main components such as carbohydrates, lipids, protein but it also includes areas such as water, minerals, vitamins, food additives, flavors and colors.
It is similar to biochemistry in its main components such as carbohydrates, lipids, and protein, but it also includes areas such as water, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, food additives, flavors, and colors. This discipline also encompasses how products change under certain food processing techniques and ways either to enhance or to prevent them from happening. An example of enhancing a process would be to encourage fermentation of dairy products with microorganisms that convert lactose to lactic acid; an example of preventing a process would be stopping the browning on the surface of freshly cut Red Delicious apples using lemon juice or other acidulated water.

Given the changing lifestyles and family structures, it creates a demand, largely driven by the consumer, for a selection of foods ever wider, including foods already prepared or partially prepared. All types of food production and processing require a solution of handling plastic. Of solids to liquid products, fresh food to frozen foods, raw to cooked foods, there will always need a plastic container, whatsoever, for storage and transportation of food, the warehouse to the final consumer.
In this sector, the range is vast, both in terms of size and variety: from the smallest to the biggest butcher integrated meat industry, through various segments such as dairy, fish, and beef and pork. Plastic containers help simplify and improve the logistics process of food production.(Owen,245)
Transport packaging used in food processing must ensure maximum protection of the product, while remaining profitable at the same time. They must also be consumer-oriented and comply with safety regulations. There are various advantages of plastic containers. They can be used to introduce the product, view price or product information, they are recyclable, so environmentally friendly, and easy to clean and maintain.
Our containers can also be temperature controlled to prevent spoilage. Strong and durable, they protect the product and increase productivity through simplicity of design. Many of our containers are made of polypropylene plastic food. This plastic is extremely hygienic and recyclable, making it ideal for the food industry.(Yadav,2000)
Food processing has come a long way in recent years. Handling the new technology means that food should be transported more safely, faster and more efficient than ever before, hence ensuring that they arrive in the supermarket fresh and ready for purchase.
According to Ghanem, an economic framework must be established to smooth out imbalances and inequalities so that every person on the planet has an access to the food.  It needs and ensure that food production reduces poverty, taking into account constraints related to natural resources.
Projections indicate that world, to improve access to food for large investments are needed which will add to existing investments. Otherwise, some 370 million people will continue to suffer from hunger by 2050, almost 5% of the population in developing countries.
The world's population, according to the latest United Nations projections, should change from 6.8 to 9.1 billion in 2050, one third more mouths to feed than there is today. The bulk of the population growth will occur in developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa, the rate of growth will be strongest (+108%, or 910 million people). However, it will be the lowest in East Asia and South East (+11%, or 228 million people). Food demand will continue to increase due to both population growth and increasing incomes. The demand for grain (for food and feed) should reach about 3 billion tons in 2050.(Raton, 1995)
Overall, the availability of land resources are sufficient to feed the future world population. However, FAO warned that an overwhelming portion of the available land suitable only for a limited number of cultures, not necessarily in high demand crops, and these lands are concentrated in few countries.
Some of the land is covered by forest, or a victim of urban sprawl. A number of countries, particularly in the Near North and South Asia, are about to achieve - if they have already done-the limits of available land.
Water withdrawals for irrigated agriculture should grow at a slower pace due to lower demand and increased efficiency of water use, but they nevertheless will grow by nearly 11 percent by 2050.
Globally, freshwater resources are adequate but unevenly distributed, and lack of water will reach alarming levels in a growing number of countries or regions, particularly in the Near North and South Asia.
To compensate for the lack of water, it will primarily use less water while producing more food. But the problem could worsen because of changes in rainfall due to climate change. The urban sector is strongly favorable in many countries, such as when the government wants to keep food prices at a lower level and concentrate investments in urban areas for industry, infrastructure and services. This orientation limits the ability of farmers to produce sufficient income, saving and investing in natural resources and manage them sustainably. The concept of urban agriculture has emerged in recent years to complement the classical model of food production in remote rural areas with large shipping goods to urban areas for consumption.
Although the analysis and practical experience in the operation of this formula is still very limited, the UPA has considerable potential for increasing production and food security in areas of dense population. It can also help countries adapt to changes in feeding mode, and research shows that Asian people who move to cities consume more vegetables, fruits and animal products to replace starchy foods such as cereals.
The human-oriented food production takes place in many forms and results in removal of vegetation, tillage, drainage and introduction of new plant or animal species. Their effects depend on the extent of exploitation. For example, the clearing of a parcel of secluded forest, while having a destructive effect on species that live there, may have less impact on the forest as the culling of trees over large areas. In time, the effects depend on the frequency of interventions and the permanence of effects. (Fennema, 34)
The use of land resources and water are scarce and a key factor to ensure food supplies at the same time. In the '50s, it was posited that the basic food should be produced in regions where it was consumed. Developing countries were considered to have considerable needs and it was thought that investment in modern agricultural technologies and related infrastructures foster development and regular food supplies was necessary. Gradually, environmental issues have gained importance as the general public and policy makers were aware of the high human and economic costs of pollution and resource degradation.
Over the past 20 years, we have moved progressively from purely technical approaches to food production approaches that take into account ecological, social and economic underlying.
Strategies to reduce environmental impact are among the important elements of the transition technological solutions to approaches based more on information and management.
The developed countries tend to use external inputs more evenly due to their high costs. In addition, an increasing number of farmers use less pesticides and fertilizers and work for consumers willing to pay a little more expensive "green" products but their share in total output is limited. Many developing countries have "green" markets to consumers wishing to purchase food produced using methods which respect the environment. There is ample evidence that these production strategies, while being less hazardous to the environment, are economically viable for limited markets to serve. Most large commercial producers are still economically feasible to make extensive use of pesticides and mineral fertilizers and have not yet adopted environment friendly general production.
 Poverty, food insecurity and environmental impacts are often associated and constitute a cycle that perpetuates itself. It is necessary to distinguish different types of rural poverty and their links to environmental impacts (Potter, 56)

Works Cited
Fennema, O.R., Ed. Food Chemistry - Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.1985
Francis, F.J. "Harvey W. Wiley: Pioneer in Food Science and Quality." In A Century of Food Science. Chicago: Institute of Food Technologists. pp. 13–14. 2000
 Owen R. Fennema “Food Chemistry” Marcel Dekker 1996
Potter, N.N. and J.H. Hotchkiss. Food Science, Fifth Edition. New York: Champman & Hall. pp. 24–68.1995
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (1993). Everything Added to Food in the United States. Boca Raton, FL: C.K. Smoley (c/o CRC press, Inc.).

Yadav, Seema, “Food Chemistry” Anmol Publications 2000


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