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August 26, 2013

Essay on Classroom Management

Classroom Management
Classroom management has now become an integral and important part of school and college learning. In the context of modern education, it aims to maximize learning time properly by managing the behavior of students and educational content. With the growing number of studies in educational psychology, knowledge in this area allows the teachers to have a good idea of ​​the general conditions for learning and to implement it in their classrooms. We often forget that learning in society, with the transmission of knowledge, expertise and know-being, is part of the mission of the school, particularly at primary level.
As part of citizenship education in elementary school, the establishment of "rules of life class" is a first step. These "rules of life" are established by the teacher with their respective students. This development phase inculcates the sense of awareness about the rules to be respected, including respect for others. The text is signed and made by students (and the teacher or by parents) and is displayed in the classroom. It is composed of duties and rights
This "rules of life “process is a regulatory element in classroom management. The teacher must ensure that students refer to it in case of "conflict" or failure.
Examples of rules of classroom life that border on the following rules
- I have the right to be respected and protected
- I must not make fun of a friend in trouble
- I have the right to learn in good conditions
- I must not damage the equipment
The emulation system is planned and designed to guide the behavior of students. Often, the emulation system is graduated according to the number of warnings received.
When the quota warning is reached, the action is applied.
The primary purpose of the class is learning. Nevertheless, in majority of the classes, the fundamental question remains as to which concrete actions should be taken by the teacher, how and what teaching methods should be devised and what aspects of group made up of students must be taken into account in order to ensure efficient education. In other words, what features should the teacher support for the student to undertake and carries out activities. In general,   learning steadily, proactive interaction between students and teacher, positive and constructive manners and well-defined training and learning objectives are some of the conventional methods adopted by the teachers under the banner of classroom management. (James ,2010)
Many of these theories have been expostulated on the basis of different contexts. For our part, we describe the evolution conceptions of management class in terms of four groups of models: approaches applying behavioral theory, those focused on the effectiveness of teaching or arising from humanistic theories, and finally and mixed approaches inspired by cognitive theories of learning.

                                                          Discipline in Classroom Management
If today the concepts of discipline and classroom management are distinct, it was not so at the beginning of the century. Currently, the term discipline is reserved primarily the conduct of the pupil, to respect established rules and procedures the teacher to correct misconduct.
Classroom management serves to ensure the teaching associated with the development of the individuals in society and their development of responsibility and autonomy. For example Dewey (1915), believes that the discipline in the class should vary depending on the purpose outcomes of the subject.
The school is much like an organization based on the principle of discipline and order. It goes without saying that the discipline is related to the final goal. If you have a goal to learn some lesson to forty or fifty students your discipline should encourage this result. But if the goal is to develop a spirit of cooperation and social life community, discipline must adjust and support the achievement of such a purpose.(Robert, 2007)
Discipline can motivate the students to make judgments themselves and to discover the purpose of certain activities and undertake personal ambitions related to learning. In order to develop beneficial classroom management strategy through which classroom activities can be conducted to ensure higher productivity, the rule is discipline. Discipline is a set of rules wisely combined to ensure free deployment of all the faculties of the child in the educational work.(Taylor, 2004)
Classroom management should be defined as all practices used by the teacher to encourage among its students develop autonomous self- learning. Various researchers of classroom management have emphasized that good classroom management should ensure cooperation between students and teachers and also between the students themselves.  The classroom management may have short term and long term goals. Now the concept of classroom management has expanded to an extent that it includes all thoughtful acts being done by the teachers to establish and maintain a good working climate and environment conducive to learning. The concept of management class now refers to all which governs the planning and organization of teaching situations.  
It was long believed that the teacher held all the authority in the classroom and the student could only succeed in the learning process by obeying the teacher and behaving appropriately. However, over the years, researchers have realized that the teachers now face more and more behavioral problems on the part of the students.
In order to find solution, the middle schools have tended to use different approaches including those inspired by behaviorism, a theory according to which it is the responsibility of the school to change the behavior of the student. According to this theory, learning is influenced largely, if not entirely, by events occurring in environment and that "the critical task of the teacher is to master and apply the four learning principles that behaviorists have identified as being those that influence behavior. These are: strengthening positive punishment and extinction of negative reinforcement.
The teacher must be able to draw students’ attention to what is being explained in the class and to facilitate this practice by using appropriate measures to correct the situation and promote compliance. Thus, by acting on the environment, the teacher may promote the emergence of a
desirable behavior and control undesirable behavior.
The behaviorist approach is in the tradition of authoritarian approaches
and interventionist class management. Indeed, the entire organization and all the classroom management on the material and educational rest on the shoulders of the teacher
who has the sole authority in class. According to this approach, the teacher's role is to establish and to maintain order in the classroom using control strategies.  
The main role of the teacher is to control behavior the student "(Gary, 2007). The student has no responsibility, except the one to succeed. Educationally, the behaviourist approach provides the basis of several models of teaching whose teaching model direct the teaching of control.
One model of intervention similar to the behaviourist theory is that of Canter and Canter, developed and tested in the classroom since the 70's. Faced with the rising cases of indiscipline in class, verbal abuse and physical model of Canter Canter and "establishes that all students regardless of their background may behave. The teachers have the right to have expectations for behavior want and have the right to support for parents and administration
This theory favors an assertive style of teaching and learning that requires the teacher to fully support and affirm his or her authority and rights in the class. The model of intervention strategies is based on five basic principles, "develop and implement rigorously clear rules regarding what behavior acceptable or not, give orders and guidelines for control behaviors, have use of punishment appropriate to the seriousness of the conduct, control the student standing next to him and for serious problems behavior, isolate, suspend or exclude the student from class or school "(Gary, 2007).
                                          Focus on Models of the Effectiveness of Education
Several studies have established a very high correlation between success school choice and efficiency with which the teaching methods are implemented. Doyle (1986), Jones and Jones (1990) and Schmuck (1992), among other theorists have identified research that establishes that the academic success is linked to varying degrees, characteristics of the teacher, the organization
material of the class, planning learning, teacher-student interaction and group of students being taught under a variety of teaching methods, teachers’ response to inappropriate behavior of the students and collaboration between students. (Taylor, 2004)
There are three elements of teacher’s behavior that directly influences behavior and learning of the students. In the first place, it entails skills of the teacher related to the organization and management of activities being carried out in the class. Secondly, the ability of the teacher to present instructional material to the students and lastly the relationship between teacher and student is what determines the outcome of learning. One of the most revealing researches was that of Jacob Kounin conducted in 1970, presented in Discipline and Group Management  in the Classroom. In his research he jumps to two important conclusions: there is a little difference between an inefficient teacher and an effective one in the way he or she manages their class unless they respond to the behavior problems of their students. Secondly, the main difference between these two types of teachers lies in the fact that how effectively they manage their classes using multiple strategies.
In order to improve the efficiency of education, he suggests that the teacher must pay particular to his interaction with the class group and encourage and promote the participation of the student. This technique encourages the teacher to be vigilant enough and prevent misconduct by paying attention to the cadence of his course. The teacher must make sure that an activity is completed before the commencement of another. It ensures effective transition between the two activities and keeps the interest of students alive. The Kounin model proposed greatly
influenced the subsequent models of class management with several other elements incorporated.
Weber believes that in order to effective and prevents behavior problems in the classroom; the teacher must establish clear rules and procedures and give clear instructions to achieve the objectives of learning activities. He must show interest in the work of the students encourage to persevere and help the student to appropriate time.
He must also chalk out a cohesive and coherent plan to prepare class material and to avoid undesirable behavior in the classroom. He must be able to plan and execute properly the teaching-learning activities varied to generate interest on the part of students and to reorient or adapt the lesson along the way based on events that produce in class.(Smith, 2002)
Humanists focus on the group and those with patterns operation designed to support students. These theories have formed the basis of pedagogical approaches promoting democracy in class, that is to say, practices that recognize the right for a student to speak in the class, which leads the teacher to consult, to listen and encourage participation in decisions learning activities and operation of the class. Social psychology is concerned to discover the principles governing the organization of the work and behavior in groups, the qualities
the heads of the undertaking or business must have the characteristics of leadership effective, the conditions favoring collaboration between workers rather than competition, the links between work motivation and productivity.

Annotated Bibliography

Robert, Tauber(2007) “Classroom management: sound theory and effective practice” Greenwood Publishing Group

Robert Tauber, in his book, argues that educators need a balance between discipline theory and its practice in the classroom. This is especially important in today's educational climate, with its increased demands for teacher accountability. In addition, teachers need to select, learn, and implement a discipline model that best reflects how they feel students should be treated. Classroom Management is designed for both those who are new to teaching and those who are already seasoned teachers, but have had little, if any, coursework in discipline. It presents several sound frameworks readers can use to evaluate six tried-and-true discipline models. Tauber explores a number of topics, some controversial, all quite relevant, concerning how teachers can prevent, as well as handle, problem behaviors. A chapter describing "A through Z" discipline suggestions can be immediately put into use.


James, Cooper(2010) “Classroom Teaching Skills” Cengage Learning

The author in this book introduces the teacher as "reflective decision maker," responsible for planning, implementing, evaluating, and making management decisions in the classroom. Each chapter considers a particular teaching skill, first discussing the theory behind it, and then presenting the reader with practice situations in which knowledge about the skill can be applied and evaluated. The Ninth Edition continues to address the importance of core INTASC standards, and highlights developing issues including the "Digital Divide," the use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) in and outside of the classroom, cooperative learning, and dealing with behavioral issues.

Gary, Borich(2007) “Effective teaching methods: research-based practice” Pearson Merrill/Prentice Hall

The book is a practical yet theoretically substantive book that aims to provide teachers with research-based, effective teaching practices. To help prepare new teachers, the book includes significant discussion of standardized tests, and exercises for Praxis test preparation. New to this edition are field experience activities, portfolio-building activities, and classroom observation activities. The author also makes constant references to the different models and theories previously proposed by various scholars such as Jacob Kounin and Weber.

Taylor, George (2004) “Practical application of classroom management theories into strategies” University Press of America

In Practical Application of Classroom Management Theories into Strategies, author George R. Taylor outlines the specific skills educators require for successful classroom management and behavior-controlling strategies. Research supports the premise that knowledge of effective classroom management techniques and strategies is essential in helping teachers to effectively deal with inappropriate, aggressive, and/or unaccepted classroom behaviors.

Smith, Colin(2002) “Effective Classroom Management: A Teacher's Guide”  Routledge

Effective Classroom Management" is a fully updated edition of the best-selling guide for beginning teachers. While the fundamentals of classroom management have not changed, and indeed effective classroom management remains a key to productive learning, recent developments such as the Elton Report on discipline in schools, the introduction of the National Curriculum, and the implementation of the 1988 Education Reform Act have brought new concerns to the classroom.
Robert Laslett and Colin Smith have restructured the text to emphasize the four principles--management, mediation, modification and monitoring--which are central to classroom practice. This second edition builds on the strengths of the first by retaining the practical advice, and adds to it by providing support and comment from more recent empirical studies and other literature on school discipline and classroom management. "Effective Classroom Management" is a user-friendly, accessible and practical guide which addresses one of the major concerns of new teachers.

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