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August 29, 2013

Essay on Dementia



Lewy Body Dementia

Dementia with Lewy bodies is a form of dementia characterized by abnormal deposits of a protein called alpha-synuclein that form inside brain nerve cells. These deposits are called "Lewy bodies" after the name of the scientist who was the first to describe them. The process that leads to the formation of Lewy bodies is unknown. Dementia with Lewy bodies mainly affects parts of the brain related to cognition and movement. Lewy Body has affected 1.3 million individuals in the United States alone.
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a form of dementia that shares characteristics with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The disease had many names and is now known as dementia with Lewy bodies. Changes in brain cells (Lewy bodies) were first described by Frederich Lewy, a colleague of Alois Alzheimer. These changes were first identified in Parkinson's disease where they are mostly limited to one area of ​​the brain. In LBD the Lewy bodies are widely distributed throughout the brain.
Currently, there is no known cause of Lewy body dementia and risk factors have not been identified. In rare cases, the disease is passed from generation to generation.
The dementia associated with Lewy body disease affects, memory, language, the ability to judge distances, the ability to perform simple actions, the ability to reason.
People with this form of dementia suffer hallucinations for example seeing a person or a pet on a bed or a chair when nothing is there. They may suffer from falls for no apparent reason, because their ability to judge distances and make movements and actions accurately is disrupted.
They may develop some Parkinson type symptoms such as slowness of movement, rigidity and tremor. In some cases the heart rate and blood pressure are affected. The capacity of the affected person often floats time to time, and the weeks and months of surplus. This is sometimes thought of as the responsible person puts on their confusion. The symptoms that support the diagnosis are repeated falls, syncope, transient loss of consciousness, neuroleptic sensitivity, systematized delusion, hallucinations in other modalities.
Scientists continue to search for a specific course of therapy for people with dementia with Lewy bodies. Treatment is symptomatic, often involving the use of the drug to control the parkinsonian and psychiatric symptoms. However, patients should be aware that antiparkinsonian medication that can help reduce tremor and loss of muscle movement may actually worsen symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. Similarly, neuroleptic drugs prescribed for psychiatric symptoms may actually worsen the symptoms of much movement. In general, atypical antipsychotic drugs are more successful than the older drugs such as haloperidol.
It is very important that patients receive the diagnosis of which type of dementia they suffer, so they can be treated with appropriate medication. In addition, caregivers can help their loved ones more effectively when they understand the diagnosis and cognitive impairments with which their loved ones were attacked. Focus on cognitive strengths and deficits de-emphasizing allows the patient of Lewy body to enjoy a better quality of life.
Dementia is a reduction of cognitive abilities gained significant enough to sound on the life of the person and cause a loss of autonomy. Brain function particularly affected may be memory, attention, and language. In the advanced stages of dementia, people may be disoriented in time (ignoring the day, week, month or year) and space (ignoring where they are) no longer recognize familiar people, or have difficulty communicating. Some patients also have behavioral problems.

The medical term dementia is a technical term that should not be confused with the common meaning of the term in everyday language (madness). It is classically defined as a mental impairment deep, comprehensive and progressive intellectual functions alters basal and disintegrating social behavior. It affects the personality in relation to the fact of "being reasonable", that is to say, in the logical system values
​​, knowledge, trial and adaptation to the social environment. Dementia was first defined by its progressive nature of forfeiture, incurable. Advances in treatment since the beginning of the twentieth century (eg, with treatment of general paralysis) have put this image. Dementia with Lewy bodies can occur by itself or in conjunction with Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. It represents between 5 and 15% of all cases of neurodegenerative diseases.
In dementia with Lewy bodies, the person may have symptoms similar to Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The progressive loss of memory, language, reasoning and other higher intellectual functions such as the calculation is common. The person may have problems with short-term memory and have difficulty in finding the right word or a train of ideas. It can also suffer from depression and anxiety. Marked fluctuations in alertness may also be noticed.
The disease usually progresses rapidly. The memory problems are not necessarily the first sign, they appear as and as the disease as the disease progresses. Visual hallucinations (seeing objects that do not exist) is common and may worsen during periods of profound confusion. They are recurrent and are characterized by the perception of people, children or animals. People with this disease are also prone to misperceptions, such as distinguishing a face in the pattern of a carpet.
Some features of dementia with Lewy bodies may resemble those of Parkinson's disease, including rigidity (muscle stiffness), tremor, stooped posture and slow movements and towed. Drug sensitivity, especially some sedatives, may aggravate these symptoms.
There is no single test to diagnose dementia with Lewy bodies. Diagnosis is made by eliminating other diseases that can cause similar symptoms. The assessment may include a neurological examination focusing particularly gait, posture and degree of rigidity.
At present, the cause of this disease is unknown and its risk factors have not been determined. However, Lewy bodies contain a protein associated with Parkinson's disease and are often found in the brains of people with Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease, suggesting the possible existence of a link between the three diseases. People who have someone with this disease in their family may have an increased risk of developing the disease. Dementia with Lewy bodies is more common in men than in women.
To date, this disease is incurable. It is sometimes possible to use certain drugs for treating the symptoms, such as those associated with Parkinson's disease, depression, and unpleasant hallucinations. In some people, the cholinesterase inhibitors - drugs used to treat Alzheimer's disease - can boost alertness and cognitive function while reducing hallucinations and other distressing symptoms.





References
Van Gerpen, Jay A.; Assn, Lewy Body Dementia (2007), New Trends in Lewy Body Dementia, from "The Many Faces of Lewy Body Dementia" series at Coral Springs Medical Center

Weintraub, Daniel; Hurtig, Howard I. (2007), "Presentation and Management of Psychosis in Parkinson's Disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies", American Journal of Psychiatry




 

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