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August 29, 2013

Essay on Disaster Managment Response



Incident Response Feedback
Over the past two decades, the number of disasters has doubled from an average of 200 to 400
per year.
Of these disasters, 9 out of 10 were related to climate. Current forecasts for the change of climate suggest that if this trend continues, it will only result in an increase in the frequency and the instability of weather. The risks associated with climate, such as drought and desertification, are also worse. In addition, many countries have a high vulnerability to disasters. Rapid urbanization, including the growing concentration of population in urban centers unplanned and dangerous areas coast at risk to poverty, HIV prevalence and inadequate attention to the changing nature of risks, make more and more people settle in disaster-prone areas. In such a situation, the need for proper incident response feedback and the reduction in the impact of disasters is indispensable.
In 2005, shortly after the Asian tsunami, more than 168 governments committed to implement the three strategic objectives of the Hyogo Framework for Action, namely 1) integrating disaster
disaster risk in policies and plans for sustainable development, 2) creating and strengthening institutions, mechanisms and means to withstand disasters and 3) systematically incorporate considerations risk reduction in the implementation of planning programs of disaster relief, response and recovery. To achieve these objectives, the Hyogo Framework outlined five priorities for action:
1. Erect the disaster risk reduction as a priority;
2. Better information on the risks and early warning systems;
3. Build a culture of safety and resilience;
4. Reduce the risks in key sectors;
5. Enhance response planning disaster.
The Framework also stresses the fact that reducing disaster risk is not just a question
to be addressed by aid workers, scientists and environmentalists, but it is also a pivotal factor in the processes of social and economic development. Disasters undermine the achievements development in impoverishing people and nations. In the absence of concerted efforts and disaster assessment strategies addressing their causes, disasters represent an obstacle more and more serious in achieving the social and economic development.(Chertoff, 2008)
In order to strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels, it emphasizes the critical role that can play in disaster preparedness in protecting lives and preservation of livelihoods, especially when integrated into a comprehensive risk reduction disaster. Strengthening disaster preparedness focuses on two objectives, namely to increase the ability to anticipate, monitor the situation and be prepared to reduce potential damage or threats and enhance preparedness to meet emergencies and to assist affected populations in preparing for an effective response to disasters
It complements and clarifies the elements of preparedness and disaster response guidelines for
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, including "Words Into Action: A Guide for Implementing the
Hyogo Framework "(2007) * and" Indicators of Progress: Guidance on Measuring the Reduction of Disaster Risks and the Implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action "(2008). It also draws on the guidance note from John Twigg and inter-agency group to coordinate the disaster risk reduction in the Department for International Development entitled "Characteristics of a Disaster-resilient Community '(2007).
This document is intended primarily for those who are early in the process of developing a capacity disaster preparedness and assessment. Given that many governments and others have already gained extensive experience in developing systems for disaster preparedness in a reduction risks, it is expected that stakeholders adapt this tool to their specific context, if any.
The paper is, first, the disaster preparedness in a general framework for risk reduction. It
goes on to give an overview of the institutional and legislative frameworks that must be put in place to support preparation for disaster response. It then describes the main steps to develop a
national capacity to prepare for disaster response and emphasizes the crucial role that can play
developing a contingency plan and analysis capabilities in strengthening preparedness. Normally, the indicators collected during the preparation phase can be the basis to measure changes over time and across different contexts. At the very least, they should serve as a checklist to ensure that preparedness activities are part of a participatory and overall assessment.
Management process is used to analyze the impact of potential crises to establish modes of action in advance to allow time timely, appropriate and effective response to the needs of affected populations. Based on scenarios possible emergencies or catastrophic events, contingency planning allows key stakeholders to consider, anticipate and resolve problems that may arise during crises.
The provision of disaster assistance must take into account humanitarian principles underlying
neutrality, humanity and impartiality. The overall strategic approach of the Hyogo Framework for Action is based on a number of other principles that are presented in detail in the ISDR entitled "Words
Into Action: Implementing the Hyogo Framework. " These principles include the following:
• Effective reduction of disaster risks requires the participation of the community. Community participation in the design and implementation of activities helps to so that they are well adapted to real needs and vulnerabilities of those affected. This commitment knowingly avoids the problems and side effects when the risk (hazard) will occur. Participatory approaches can exploit more effectively the existing local capacity. They generally take into account gender issues and cultural and contextual factors that can either prevent groups and individuals to take action at the local level or, alternatively, give them the means of action.
The incorporation of local perspectives in decisions and activities can also cause that changes in vulnerability and risk perception are recognized and taken into account in institutional processes, risk assessments and other programs and policies. States have the primary responsibility to implement measures to reduce risks disaster. Reducing disaster risk must be an essential investment for the sustainable development of public. States have the power and the responsibility to protect their citizens and national assets by reducing losses caused by disasters. However, States cannot by themselves sufficient to the task. An effective reduction of disaster risks is on the efforts of many stakeholders, including regional and international organizations, civil society, including volunteers, the private media and the scientific community.

The disaster risk assessment must be integrated into development activities. Disasters have serious consequences for the lives, livelihood of populations, particularly the poor, and preserve the fruits of development, hard-won.
The multi-hazard approach can improve efficiency. Each community is usually exposed to
risks from various hazards. We cannot effectively address the cumulative effects of risk
if the actors do not plan that, depending on certain contingencies in isolation. A multi-hazard approach implies an ability to translate knowledge about a range of hazards and integrate an effective response to disasters.
 Capacity building is a central strategy for reducing risk. Development capacity is needed to strengthen and maintain the capacity of individuals, organizations and companies to effectively manage their risks. This requires not only training and specialized technical assistance, but also capacity building of communities and individuals to recognize and reduce risks in their localities.
 Many activities to reduce disaster risks must be undertaken at the regional, municipal
and local, to the extent that the risk to exposed populations and are specific to certain geographical areas. It is necessary to assign responsibilities and resources for disaster risk reduction to sub-national or local, depending on circumstances. The decentralization can also encourage local participation combined with increased efficiency improved and equitable benefits from local services.
The social role of men and women, gender is a determining factor in on disaster risks and risk reduction. The social role of men and women, gender is a central organizing principle in all societies. Differences between gender roles will result in different risk profiles for women and men during a disaster. In all situations - at home, at work or in the neighborhoods - the role of sex role determines the capabilities and resources that allow each individual to reduce minimum damage to adapt to hazards and cope with disasters.
Disasters took place earlier clearly show that low-income women and marginalized because
marital status, physical condition or age, social stigma or membership a caste are particularly disadvantaged. In addition, local women are often well placed to manage risk due to their roles as users and managers environmental resources, economic support from caregivers and workers community. For these reasons, it is necessary to identify and use gender-specific information to ensure that risk reduction strategies targeting the most vulnerable and correctly are effectively implemented according to the role of women and men.
 The public-private partnerships are an important tool for risk reduction disaster. The public-private partnerships are voluntary associations that address joint common goals through concerted actions. They may include public bodies such as government agencies, professional institutions or universities
and non-governmental organizations and professional organizations such as companies, industry associations and private foundations. Given that the threat of natural disasters affects both public and private interests, the public-private partnerships can offer the opportunity to combine resources and expertise and to act jointly to reduce risks and losses. So they can improve the resilience of communities.

 The disaster risk assessment must be specifically tailored to each particular situation particular. The political, socio-economic, cultural and environmental circumstances related to disaster risk vary widely among states. Measures that successfully reduce risk in a given situation may not work in others. Adapting to each particular situation involves a use of the experience of others, including analyzing contexts of specific measures and the nature of good practices and lessons learned and adapting them later to implement the policies and activities appropriate to the contexts premises.
Despite considerable efforts, the majority of humanitarian actors recognizes that there  still gaps in the response to natural disasters, in terms of assessment  situation, development of response strategies, call for partners establishment of joint actions, needs identification and verification of their satisfaction. The experience of the tsunami has highlighted the importance of coordinating the plans at the regional level and make information on the plans available and easy to read in order to make decision-making easier, faster and more appropriate.
The recommendations are regionally to undertake the establishment of disaster mapping and preparedness planning: Each region to have a plan for disaster management which identifies potential disasters, scales and magnitudes probable needs preparation in terms of supply, subject to staff management, collection of funds, resource mobilization, and procurement and so on.
Coordination is necessary to ensure cooperation both within the Movement of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, and between the Movement and other actors to reduce duplication, maximize the organization of operations based on information shared and to optimize the use of all resources. The growing complexity of disasters in an international environment becomes more exposed and vulnerable, which is a significant constraint for the Federation international efforts to improve coordination of its response to disasters along with other humanitarian actors. Political instability in some countries where the IFRC will implement the program is another constraint.
Large and sudden disasters could have an impact on the availability and the use of resources and assets of the Federation, which could divert the work on implementation of activities under this program, particularly in the field. It is also assumed that other donors, the SN and the public continue to support the further development of the system of preparedness and response to disasters of federation in the world. In addition, it is necessary to further strengthen and update the prevention tools and put in place relevant plans such as disaster preparedness, the VCA and WPNS as useful and practical tools to prepare the national societies to respond to disasters and provide critical information in the development of preparedness plans and disaster response and design appropriate responses.

References
Chertoff, Michael,(2008) Assessing the first five years University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009, Print.
CRS report for Congress, FEMA Disaster Housing and Hurricane Katrina, Retrieved on
July 16 2011 from

Dan ‘Key(2007) crisis communication plan elements’, retrieved on July 16, 2011 from:




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