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August 3, 2013

Essay on Street Gangs in United States

Gangs Timeline
Street gangs in the United States date back to the early 19th century. However, at that time, the most notorious street gangs in the U.S mainly African-American ones were not paid heed to as a burning social issue until after the migration of 1910s with an exception in 1853 Philadelphia.  Some comes up with an argument that increasing gang activity is unswervingly associated with decline in adult mentors, school failures, decreases in after-school programs and similar failures by the adults in the lives of children. While kids from more opulent neighborhoods may resort to other less dangerous alternatives, children from poorer neighborhoods often turn to gangs both as protection and a place to find love and understanding. (Muncie, 2000)
The history of European-American youth gangs dates as far back as the 1780s. Although lacking a definition, the gangs then were marked by young people hanging out on street corners. It is thought these early groups formed to protect their localities from other similar groups of youths.
Timeline: Gangs in 19702 and 1980s
Not surprisingly, by absorption through the legal capital of the gangs would disappear in an America which was increasingly wealthy and developed, or at the turn of the 70's explosion of drug trafficking gangs boosts vitality.  Drugs produced in South America at that time (particularly cocaine still in vogue) were transported, packaged and distributed by gangs that were emerging where consumers lived and especially where the state was absent. For this generalization of traffic in the late 70's is coupled with the great "reform" ultra-liberal President Reagan. Renouncing social liberals of the period plunged sharply in the abject poverty of tens of millions of Americans who were left to themselves: no work, no benefits, no school and no social security for entire cities minorities and especially at the margins of consumer society. Without organizations able to unite the millions of excluded people is fragmented more than ever on a local, ethnic, racial or religious grounds. The younger generation of these areas abandoned by the state formed new gangs that were quick to replace the authorities in these vast areas, all in parallel cults of all kinds. The gang was often the only "business" that employed and enabled the district to live frugally because often all the gangsters are not millionaires.
The economy was having a horror of empty spaces giving rise to drug use and the platforms of all the traffic normally associated with that of the drug, prostitution, counterfeiting and receiving stolen property a useful supplement to the gangs.
The film "New Jack City" (director Mario Van Peebles, 1991) shows how the Bronx in New York has been plagued by the "crack", drugs derived from heroin, which literally destroyed the neighborhood, c ' is like the second episode of "Scarface" (director Brian de Palma, 1984) that begins the adventure of the South American drugs to Miami in the 70s.(Davis, 2009)
The gangs, sometimes associated, often rivals, then follow the lines of communication and especially after the economic cycles: market already largely saturated, Los Angeles has "exported" their gang along Highway 66 in the small towns of provinces where drugs have emerged at the same rate and on the same terms as televisions and fridges 50 years ago. While the phenomenon was limited to large urban globalized relentless liberalism of the 1980s released many gangs as a social cancer metastasis.(Adamson, 2000)
Faced with this wave the American state did not remain passive. By the 1970s an entire legal arsenal amounts to hit harder traffickers. The DEA, federal police only on the fight against drugs, kicks in with great fanfare spectacular operation, but nothing seems to stop traffic.
First drug trafficking generates such sums of money it is still very difficult to beat the traffic where it is more efficient: the portfolio. After a certain rank in the hierarchy of crime fortunes are so installed that it is impossible to act as the money passes quietly in a tax haven offshore banks and the interests of billionaires joined the arms dealers or Wall Street pundits. In short proximity to the wealth of the capitalists of various origins limits any coercive action really. Globalization started in the 90's even made completely out of control impossible. The police were therefore reduced to knocking on the base where the volunteers for the resumption of activities dismantled never fail.
The term subculture is different from that of sub-culture that designates cultural products of low-end. The subculture is a culture specific to one age group and has a character of being temporarily on the sidelines. This notion of subculture has been theorized by Albert K. Cohen of the Chicago School in Delinquent boys: the culture of the Gang (1955) where he studied youth gangs in Chicago.
The subculture is defined as a solution to problems of cultural status and social integration. The solution involves a change in the cultural frame of reference; it is a process of cultural and value creation.  Participation in the subculture has a social cost. We must ensure the stigma of participation in this subculture, it has consistently partisan, but very rarely  they want to pay the cost of participation (clothing styles, language,  musical, physical, pictorial, etc) that allow the definition of territory (real and  symbolic).
The American black ghettos have influenced this subculture, especially with the Caribbean migration. The subculture is a mode of resistance to social disorganization in character training.
They show the affinity between the West Indies (Caribbean from Jamaica) and the Skin; their opponents are students, Greeks and Pakistanis. What triggers hostility is skin that they see in the Greek and enterprising minority of Pakistanis spectrum their own past, there is a relationship of longing and sense of exclusion.
Skin is the feeling of increasingly being marginalized as the West Indies. Their reaction comes from the deterioration of their local culture worker. They try to maintain their status amid tense reactionary values trying to define a new identity. (Meranze, 2002) 


















References
 Muncie, J. (2000) "Youth & Crime" 2nd Edition, Sage,
 Adamson, Christopher(2000), "Defensive localisms in white and black: a comparative history of European-American and African American youth gangs", Ethnic and Racial Studies 23 (2): 272-298.
 Davis, Susan, G. (2009), "Making night hideous": Christmas revelry and public order in nineteenth-century Philadelphia', American Quarterly, 34 (2): 185-199 COPS Office: Gangs
Meranze, M. (2002), Laboratories of Virtue: Punishment, Revolution, and Authority in Philadelphia, 1760-1835, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press









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