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August 10, 2013

Research Paper on Leadership in African American Community

Since 1865, no African-American organization, group or religious organization has found it necessary to advance the idea that African Americans should integrate themselves. This course of action was simply overlooked and intra-racial integration has been taken for granted. This omission has afflicted the African American community for 142 years. For 142 years after slavery, most African Americans are still obsessed with the integration which is inter-racial and not intra-racial integration.
The very fact remains that the African-American leadership was not born out of choice but of subjugation, political repression, social segregation and economic oppression. Therefore, without viable ways to interact for mutually beneficial reasons, skin color and slavery became the commonality that brought people together. Other than that, there were not strong enough reasons to bring the vast majority of African-American population to American soil.
Under the barbarism and cruelty of slavery, African-American ancestors were stripped of self-knowledge, cultural heritage and identity. Therefore, in order to assume the solidarity, because they were considered "Black", is to assume and attain the equal status of “White”.
Therefore, African-American leaders did not even suspect or entertain the possibility that tribal differences, cultural influences, regional differences or intangible sociological or psychological factors might have survived slavery acting as an invisible barrier preventing social cohesion and cooperation. Because of this oversight, methods and procedures have not been developed to achieve intra-racial social integration and unification.
African independence had to return the direct influence of rhetoric gave a central place in Africa within the African-American political discourse. The case of Black Nationalism then shows well the implications of this new Africa on the political commitments of African Americans in the United States. Since the thirties, in fact, this policy direction within the black community was dominated by a Muslim-inspired movement called the Nation of Islam (NOI). It was within this movement that many activists became famous as Elijah Muhammad, its leader until 1975, Louis Farrakhan, then minister the city of Boston and Malcolm X, at the head of the Temple in Harlem. However, making Islam the original religion of the black people of Mecca, his ancestral land and the "Afro-Asiatic race" the community of belonging, the leaders of the Nation of Islam had greatly diverted their high number followers of Pan-African concerns, which since the 19th century, animated movements called classic Black Nationalism.
Thus, in the NOI, Africa and religions were denounced by the spokesman of the association, considered as identity markers that could in no case result in the promotion of African-American community. Denying their African origins, the group made the inhabitants of the continent leading the Gentiles casually that Elijah Muhammad described as the "life of the jungle."
If the accession of many African countries to independence does not directly influence the speech of the Nation of Islam, it had repercussions for the creation of other movements, which themselves nationalists also claimed a unity of substance between the rebellious populations of the black continent and those of the "diaspora". Two movements were thus created: the revolutionary movement of the Black Power first, that of cultural nationalism then, direct ancestor of the current movement "Yoruba" or "Akan" American.
Black Power was born mainly from the writings of Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Hamilton. For these authors, the American system is based on the exploitation of the black community in what activists call the "White Power." This operation is part of the very institutions of the country and is vital to the survival of U.S. democracy. In North America, blacks produce the raw materials and harvest the food that allow whites to create marketable end products. These are the black people walking the economic machine and are responsible for the enrichment of the Nation in its entirety.
For Carmichael and Hamilton (1967), so it's the principle of a distinction between structuring black community and white power that allows the enrichment of those who market, whites at the expense of those who produce, blacks. This operation is part of a political system which they say is nothing but a new manifestation of colonialism.


 Excluding the "Black Muslim Movement" of Elijah Mohammed, we can safely say that for 142 years, the main thrust of African-American has remained focused on social acceptance, racial integration and equality with white America and not equal to each other or in their own communities. As civil rights, African Americans were moving their communities in record numbers, as they are financially able to do so. Therefore, the best minds and most capable had taken their talents and skills elsewhere.

Consequently, no one within the African American community implemented corrective actions that may respond to differences in sleep in the community itself that creates a more flexible interaction, enhanced social awareness and social cohesion. Identify and mitigate the differences that could hinder the group's growth and development has never been an important factor during the formative years of the African American experience in the post Civil War America. At least there is no record of such programs or actions taken by leaders past and present African-American.
Because of "Jim Crowism" and "Southern Baptist style racism," self-examination, self-fulfillment and self satisfaction were shocked. So complete was this subversion that self-esteem, rational thought, scientific inquiry, self-awareness, social awareness and social cohesion have been and are virtually non-existent within the African American community.
As this mental regression has increased over the years, African Americans have become more dependent on the ministers and preachers for the leadership and direction. That's why it was so easy for ministers to direct the "Civil Rights Movement." It was in the church that the myth of racial solidarity began. Forced friendliness of the congregation of evil to reap the rewards in "White America" ​​has been taken to social integration. This is probably the main reason why intra-racial integration has never been seriously considered by the African-American leaders. The closest of African Americans ever came to confront their own racial differences was in the Marcus Garvey "Back to Africa Movement" of the 1920s and his "Negro Improvement Association."
From Marcus Garvey, no African-American leader highlighted the idea that African-American should and must integrate themselves first. Intra-office of racial integration is the only way to resolve differences in sleep that might have survived slavery and achieve social cohesion that is vital for long-term growth, economic and institutional development.
It is conceivable that these cultural and socio-psychological differences may have been passed through generations. It is also quite conceivable that these differences ingrained in the African American community have gone unnoticed, even by the investigator and the most astute observer of the African American experience. Integrate, ways to a whole.

                       Purpose and Significance of the Study

The struggle of African-American community has had to confront various highs and lows. In terms of its leadership, this study will aim to examine whether what were the factors that through the website or not. Leadership plays a pivotal in the pursuit of set goals of a community. However, the contention within the leadership and community at large can easily endanger the future of the community in terms of its economic, social, and cultural uplift.  In addition, this study will also aim to identify factors influencing attitude towards African community in America and their own attitude towards Whites.
It is believed that some cultural organizations and their official leaders meet all kinds of needs of their members, which may be of political, socio-cultural or economic. Such organizations and leaders can transmit culture and heritage, facilitate the transition to the new company (E.g., Integration into the labor market, housing, social services and education), the cause of the group (eg. in the case of discrimination) and manage the resources needed for these various purposes

                                        Nature of the Study

The reasons for this study are to discuss the impact of Afro-American leadership on the community at large. The employee satisfied with his situation and relationships at work, seeking to maintain fairness through actions altruistic and conscientious. By cons, if the community perceives the negative attitude from its leadership, it recasts its relationship with the leadership which results in the hampering of common goals and pursuits.  The link between leadership and community could be explained by the quality of the social exchange (Blau, 2009) between the leadership and the people.
This research study does not test a hypothesis nor it creates statistics; on the contrary it tries to discern views regarding the topic. This purpose can be achieved by asking specific questions to the participants of survey. As the topic is broad which requires people’s view on this topic, the researcher will use the qualitative approach of analyzing the data (Bryman, 2008).

                                Limitation of the Study

It is limited in that it is student level research and the most preferred method as access to required data can be obtained at little or no cost to the researcher. Journal, periodicals, newspaper articles and internet were the sources used to prepare this research paper. Thus for student level research it is the most preferred method because it is not possible for students to perform expensive research.


Q-1   Has African-American community ever been able to find common grounds necessary not only for inter-racial relations but intra-racial as well?
Q-2 What were the factors that impeded the formation of an undisputed African-American leadership? For instance, Malcolm X defied the influence of Big Six and the religious current further separated African-American community in their pursuit of integration and assimilation into the political system of America.
Q-3 Is the ascension of Barack Obama to presidency a good omen for the community on the whole. Can the African-American community now foresee a consolidated leadership and reap its benefits? 

 The theory of social identity explains the relations between communities in terms the group. According to this theory, a person is defined itself among other ways, becoming aware of the fact that he is a member of a social group (or groups) and discovering the value and emotional significance that requires membership in the group (Fowler, 1993). This implies a desire to have a positive social identity. Anthropologists point out how some primordial ties (region, family religion, language, social practices, etc..) loyalty and influence the behavior of a individual (Geertz, 1993). The quality of these links generally in society in general varies from person to person and changes over time.

The sense of difference is a catalyst for the identification of an ethnic group (Barth, 1969). The pressures from within and outside of a community data have a profound impact on identity formation, and the ability of leaders to come up with a balance between the two may be essential to the vitality of a community. The leadership of ethnocultural communities can play a key mediating role between past and the state and society. With his fundamental work on identity, Isagiw (1979) has identified a multitude of definitions of the notion of ethnicity. By definition, an ethnic group consists of people who consider themselves belong to a panel and who share particular characteristics. This idea is reflected in the statement, formulated in the report of the Commission Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism on the cultural contribution of other ethnic groups.
The main element of our concept of "ethnic group" is not the language, but the feeling of belonging to a group and will collective group to exist. An "ethnic group" is much more than statistics based on ethnicity and much more than the total number of people from the same origin.  It is a force that draws its vitality from the feeling experienced by its members to belong to a group.(Cromwell, 2007)
It is necessary to establish a closer link between the theoretical work on identity, actual experiences of communities and their respective models of governance and leadership. (Taylor and Mohaaggaden, 1989). Those that address such questions raise the level of leadership within the community. Waller argues that the characteristics personal and social individuals who become leaders depend on the nature of the problems facing the group in a particular context or a
particular moment in its history.
The formation of identity and community leadership that results are without any probably influenced by historical and demographic as well as the socio-economic context within which the group operates. Apart from the hostility of the surrounding environment with regard to the promotion of various means of expression of identity, factors such as the entrenchment of community, patterns or waves of immigration of the group, level and mode organization before and after the arrival of immigrants, the community size, degree of unity or stability and diversity of its members are essential to the formation of identity (Rosenberg and Jedwab, 1992).
To varying degrees, these issues affect the identity formation and leadership. For example, if a community or ethnic religion has its network of institutions during a period when the state or society have general support for this type of identity, organizational development opportunities will  probably be more numerous and the degree of support from the community higher.
                                                      Governance and Leadership
As mentioned, studies of literature tend to be closely associated with studies of community governance. In the study without Perhaps the most important on the governance of ethnic communities in Canada, sociologist Raymond Breton examines a number of issues that are central of how leadership affects the formation of identity. Breton examines several dimensions of leadership. It focuses on the possibilities and problems present themselves to the leaders of ethnic communities, as well as the ability to have access to strategic resources and use them for community purposes.
It argues that as leadership emerges, the characteristics of it are defined by the dynamic interaction between the particular community and the environment socio-political context. In addition, the events of ethnic communities may have direct or indirect impact on the staff of the institutions of society. These agents are likely to attempt to influence the leadership, direction strategic and business. Although the primary institution is affected state, other institutions, including churches, political parties, unions, businesses and media, may also hold interests in public affairs in ethnic communities. These institutions may affect the business community by manipulating the ethnic composition of their leaders, ensuring dependence leaders vis-à-vis the external agency and its resources or by incorporating leadership in the overall institutional framework through networks community and inter-organizational strategic individuals.
Leaders of various sub-groups and different factions of the community can compete. According to Breton, in such situations, power is distributed more or less equally between the subgroups. Often, the heads of file of these subgroups do not control the resources necessary to achieve their particular goals. They need access to resources controlled by others. By Therefore, it is important to forge links to create a pool of resources and coordinate action. In the case of distribution unequal powers, against by a series of leaders dominate the landscape policy.
According to Breton (1991) the gap between leaders and members of a group given the degree of communication between them and the means by which leaders to remain in power are all essential issues in the study of leadership. Very few studies provide a framework for evaluating the approach and performance leaders. In a study of models of successful leadership in Chilean immigrants in Toronto, we propose a general framework for assessing the success or failure of a process of leadership in an institutional environment. This study highlights three types of leadership: protector / broker mobilizer / mediator and organizer / representative. It argues that the type patron / broker is most stable when the organizer / representative is the least successful (Basok, 1983).
The notion of leadership is very often associated with power and influence. In his important work on the Jewish community in Canada, Harold Waller (1993) argues that any examination of this community must focus on how decisions are taken and people who make these decisions: in short, power. The effectiveness a community may depend on the ability to identify individuals capable of achieving its objectives.(Balow,1962)
The power cannot be distinguished from control of resources, because many of key decisions in political systems deal with these issues. In fact, one can argued that the spending and tax collection activities are the most major governing bodies of communities, because the amounts available and how they are affected largely determine the scope and nature activities of the community. The economic and social status of the community can have a great impact on the nature of governance and leadership, as that institutions and their leaders meet identity needs.
Leaders may be the instrument of the will of the community and / or attempt guide the group in a particular direction. Effective leadership is not necessarily related to the amount of institutional resources of the group. Much depends on the level of confidence experienced by constituents to their leaders. It is crucial to understand how these define their electorate. This question is rarely studied and, very often, assumes that leaders are the mouthpiece of the whole community.(Benett, 1986)
Leaders have often accompanied the immigrants, especially those who came from the same town or village. In the case of African Americans, the leaders of ethno cultural emerged shortly after the arrival of slaves in America. As we shall see, the fact that immigrants were from different parts of the same country has resulted in internal rivalries between communities and their leaders, and such conflicts have arisen through institutions.


Journals, periodicals, newspaper articles, magazines and electronic magazines are all of the sources that will be used in the preparation of this report. Apart from that, the proposed study will also use a sample survey method where sample will be drawn from randomly selected consumers. The survey will consist of a well-prepared questionnaire using either direct questions or questions with scale rating scheme regarding the subject of the research. Most of the questions would be direct; however the questionnaire contains some rating questions also (Fowler, 1993). The questionnaire queries with the subjects and try to analyze and answer the questions this research is posing.  It is the duty of the researcher to maintain the confidentiality of the respondents and thus, he must make sure that the responses are kept confidential. Questionnaires will be either given personally to the participants or will be sent to them by mail. Many of the questions that have been included in the questionnaire were asked to the different stakeholders in private and the responses that have been provided by them have been kept in strict confidentiality. 


This study assumes that role of leadership has largely and immensely affected the behavior and attitude of African community in America. This section also discusses the scope and limitation of the proposed study.


This research paper would delve into the facets of African-American leadership in America. After discussing relevant literature and researching the topic through survey questionnaire, the report would sum up all the main points discussed in the report and then present a comprehensive conclusion of the study.





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