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September 30, 2013

Essay on Child Care

CASE STUDY OF A SEVEN YEAR OLD BOY
Chan is seven years old boy. When Chan was younger his parents thought he was very clever, so they were anxious to send him to school. However, they are disappointed with Chan. He had to repeat Grade One. His teacher says that Chan is clever but, he is lazy and careless. He only concentrates when he likes the subject. For Example Chan is very good at maths and drawing but he is always making mistakes in English. He writes some letters back to front and his spelling is terrible. His teacher is often angry with Chan. He cannot understand why Chan is so good at maths and so bad in English. At the end of Grade One, Chan was still forgetting to put the stop on some letters. No matter how many times his teacher tells him to write proper words he keeps forgetting every time. Moreover, his classmates make fun of him due to which has a bad temper, lower self-esteem and is very aggressive with his fellow mates. (Christopher B. Forrest et all, 1997)
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OBSERVATIONS ABOUT THE CHILD:
The three most important observations that can be made in the case of Chan are that:
 1) He was pretty clever when he started learning things initially but with the passage of time he became careless and lost his interest.
 2) Chan always faces trouble in writing words .Since; he constantly writes letters wrong so we can easily judge that he has a learning disorder known as ‘dyslexia’ .Due to which he had to repeat his class.
3) He only shows interest in subjects he loves, for instance he is bright in maths where as he lacks interests in others which makes him a bad student in the class. Chan has turned into a short-tempered boy due to constant mocking of his fellow mates.
IMPORTNACE FOR THE PRACTITIONER TO OBSERVE CHILDREN
                                                       IN THEIR CARE
It is extremely essential for the practitioner to observe children in their care as it is the basic tool in understanding a young child .It is the only way which will help a practitioner to know if the child demands some special needs.  Based on these observations a practitioner can easily plan strategies for teaching and taking care of every individual child in their care and setting up their priorities which will vary from a child to other child.
The easiest way to judge a child for any disability is to sit down with the child one-on-one talk to him for sometime in order to make your judgements. Observe a child and note down his or her expressions, behaviour towards every other thing, the way he reacts and interacts with the people.  Always build up friendly relations with every child in a health care system because this is the only way they will make you know them. Always respond to all their queries in a polite manner, be sensitive about their emotions and show respect from them.
·         There are a plenty of reasons why a practitioner observes child in his or her care but the main aim of all of them is facilitate planning a most suitable curriculum, to find out the things which amuses and motivates those individuals so that they will developed theory skills, also improves the way they interacts with other people, promote friendship with the other kids in that care. However the assessment made by the observer is not a full picture of that child, a practitioner also needs to refer their parents for the compel assesmnet of the child. (Anne C. Beal et al,2004)

ROLE OF PLANNING IN INDIVIDUAL CHILDREN’S DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING NEEDS
Since every child differs from other and will grasp things in a different way .All of them will also posses distinct strengths, interests so it is extremely important to plan individually. Therefore, Planning for children’s learning and development is an important part of your practice.
 As per Children’s act 2004 very child has a right to get a quality education and get trained under highly skilled professionals who can bring about the best in them. Every child must be treated as an independent learner and must be motivated towards learning.  Every opportunities of learning are supposed to be provided to all of them without being biased.  All the members involved in the team must work together in a group; prior importance should be laid on making the environment comfortable for learning. (P G Szilagyi et all 1998)
Ø  STAGES OF PLANNING :
Some important steps in planning includes:

·         Meeting the child gathering valuable information through interacting and observing him
·         Meet his parents or guardians
·         Through review of the child’s medical history
·         Gather reports on visual and hearing
·         See the performance of the child in school , what his teacher says about him and how he treats his other fellows
·         Cognitive testing (i.e. IQ tests, memory assesmnet)
·         Visit the home of the child if he is disable or is not attending the school
·         Speech or language assessments tests
·         Psychological evaluation of the child
·         Planning activities and experience and implement your strategies.(Anne C. Beal et al,2004)
INTERESTS AND LEARNING NEEDS OF THE CHILD OBSERVED
Chan shows interest in Maths so he must be encouraged in that particular area. However other subjects must not be neglected. A practitioner must design certain ways to gain his interest so that he is motivated towards learning other subjects as well. Apart from maths Chan is also interested in drawing so, his drawing skills must also be enhanced. This child must be assured that he possesses some skills which are unique and he can pursue this at his career.
The major issue in this case is that the child has a learning difficulty which is a factor within the child. When the teacher gets angry over Chan and shouts at him, this lowers his self-esteem and discourages his learning abilities.  The teacher must treat him gently as this is the only way to handle this child and to promote learning in such cases. The teacher must neglect his silly mistakes and must not get angry. Instead the instructor must inquire Chan about the difficulties that he is facing while writing.
After knowing all the problems the teacher must find out ways which will help Chan to overcome those problems. One of the solutions can be making Chance practise more. He must be given extra writing tasks. Punishment must highly be prohibited and the child must be rewarded every time he works well and makes less mistakes.  A teacher must motivate the child and try to reduce his fear. A friendly environment must be providing to Chan for fruitful learning.
ACTIVITIES/EXPERIENCES TO MEET THE DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS OF THE CHILD
Chan is facing learning disorder which is also termed as ‘dyslexia’. In this condition, according to Valdois S(2004) learning is facilitated by following means:
·         Phonological skills of Chan (which is the ability to produce sounds) must be enhanced which will play a vital role in ready and writing Children with dyslexia experience emotional barriers so these issues must not be neglected in case of Chan.

·         Through making use of various educational tools to improve the writing and reading skills. Like use of computers.

·         Take measures to lower his anxiety, increase confidence and lowered levels of frustrations.  (Martha Bridge Denckla et all,1976)

OUTCOMES OF THE ABOVE MENTIONED STRATAGIES


·         Improving phonological skills of Chan will improve phonics in Chan which will remove all his confusions regarding the pronunciation of words. Phonics instructions given to him will help him to recognise the words and also guides him to ways how words are written according to the sounds produced. Special instructions regarding the spelling will encourage the child to combine letters and to produce words. Special attention will be laid on the fluency of Chan so that he can practise reading the words rightly. If he keeps practising he will be able to gain fluency in a short span of time.
·         Computer based learning can also play a positive role in learning since it will induce thinking and learning capabilities.  For instance Microsoft Words has a spellchecker which will automatically highlight mistakes and the written document which also facilitates the process of learning.  Speech recognition software can also be helpful in this regard since it converts texts to speech.



·         Barriers of fear and anxiety are wisely broken through encouraging and motivating him towards learning and reassuring him that he is doing perfectly fine as other children do this will boost his confidence and increase self-esteem. (Mary T. Story et all,2002)

ENHANCING THE LEARNING PROCESS THOUGH ENLISTED ACTIVITIES:
Once the above strategies are implemented the practitioner must access the child through observing if he has improved his phonetics. Take tests after certain intervals to evaluate the progress of the child. A practitioner can also rank the child after each test so that he can know if the child is picking up the things correctly.
Check improvements in the level of fear and anxiety. Make sure that the child becomes more interact with his mates and instructor. Observe how computer-based learning is enhancing the child’s reading and spelling.
ROLE OF PRACTATIONER IN PROMITING CHILD HEALTH AT DIFFERENT AGE OR STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT:
It is the duty of every practitioner to identify the right of every child so that they can work on then accordingly. This will enhance their growth and development through engaging them in different activities.  A practitioner must adopt strategies individually for every child. He must consider carefully that what he is doing and why is he doing. He must also set up various goals and be critical of himself and how to do things n the end if must evaluate if he has become successful in achieving all of them.  Analytical approach is the key to overcome all the logical issues. (Christopher B. Forrest et all, 1997)
 According to C J Homer et all (1998) also the emotional and behavioural health of the child needs to be considered. Through evaluation of the child strength and weakness by the practitioner can also promote child health in a positive manner.  Deployment strength and difficulties questionnaire. First and foremost attention must be laid to secure a supportive and stable environment. The professional also needs to incorporate trained, experienced and highly skilled staff in their team. 
Ø  Giving Instructions
Outline of what is going to be taught in the class must be given to all students in simple words. Give tasks for home and make sure that you access it correctly when the child completes the task. Make the student write the telephone numbers of some of his friends so that if he forgets he can easily inquire them before he starts. Make a check list for the child so that he can refer it every evening.  In case if a child has a poor visual memory then prefer giving him handouts as if will work more. Make the child sit in the front row so that he can easily communicate with the teacher and get assistance from the instructor, this will support and make the child comfort in all regards.
Make use of different colour markers so that a child can easily distinguish between different colours and copy it down correctly. Use proper spacing between the words.
Ø  Copying from the board
However in the above case dyslexia child who experiences problem in reading, spelling and expressing their thoughts on paper undergo a lot of trauma and are often abused by their peers in the family and health care setting due to their learning problems.   These children must be handled with care as they are unable to follow simple instructions which may sound easy to the others. So within a class room it is the duty of the teacher to induce conductive learning for all pupils. Teacher needs to understand the fact that the child will lean things slowly, by having this clear vision many misunderstandings can be prevented. This is the way by which a dyslexic child will feel that he is being value.
Ø  Reading
Make the child learn new words after certain interval of time so that he does not lack behind the other children in a class. Also make him recall what he as learn, frequently repeating the words will make him memorize things for longer period of time.
Do not make the child read any book which is beyond his level or you think he will face difficulty in. As this can lower the concentration and motivation levels.
Story tapes can be a useful tool for enhancing the vocabulary. It can also be a source of enjoyment for the child. ( Shaller D,2004)
Ø  Spelling
Make the child repeat the spellings of the words he forgets frequently. Initially conduct the spelling tests on the daily basis then you can take tests on the weekly basis.  
Encourage the child to proof read to check for spelling errors.
The teacher who is dealing with Chan must also enhance his knowledge about the condition. Many researchers have proved that early interventions are helpful in these cases so ideally before a child reaches the age of seven educational interventions must be started to gain long-term improvements in their reading and writing skills. Some additional assessments must be made to evaluate if he is learning through adopting these strategies.  (Brian D et all,2002)

REFERENCES:
1-      Christopher B. Forrest, Lisa Simpson, Carolyn Clancy, ‘ Child Health Services Research ‘ The Journal Of The American Medical Association June 11,1997 ,Vol 277,No.22
2-      C J Homer, L C Kleinman, and D A Goldman’ Improving the quality of care for children in health systems Health Serv Res,v.33(4 Pt 2); Oct 1998 PMC1070305
3-      Shaller D, ‘Implementing and using quality measures for children's health care: perspectives on the state of the practice, 2004 Jan; 113(1 Pt 2):217-27.
4-      Anne C. Beal, John Patrick T. CoDenise Dougherty, Tanisha Jorsling*Jeanelle Kam*,James Perrin, R. Heather Palmer, Quality Measures for Children’s Health Care, Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics Vol.113 No. Supplement 1January ,2004 pp.199-209

5-      P G Szilagyi and E L Schor ‘The health of children’ Health Serv Res. 1998 October; 33(4 Pt 2): 1001–1039. PMCID: PMC107030

6-      Martha Bridge Denckla, Rita G. Rudel ‘ Naming of object-drawings by dyslexic and other learning disabled children ‘  Brain and language ,Volume 3, Issue 1, Januray 1976 , Pages 1-15
7-      a b "Dyslexia Information Page". National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 12 May 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
8-      ^ Pennington, B.F.; Santerre-Lemon, L., Rosenberg, J., MacDonald, B., Boarda, R., Friend, A., Leopold, D.R., Samuelsson, S., Byrne, B., Willcutt, E.G., & Olson, R.K. (24 October 2011). "Individual Prediction of Dyslexia by Single Versus Multiple Deficit Models". Journal of Abnormal Psychology 121 (1): 212–224. doi: 10.1037/a0025823.PMID 22022952.
9-      ^ Henry, Marcia K. (2005). "The history and structure of the English language". In Judith R. Birsh. Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills. Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brookes Publishing. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-55766-676-5.OCLC 234335596.
10-  ^ Valdois S, Bosse ML, Tainturier MJ (November 2004). "The cognitive deficits responsible for developmental dyslexia: review of evidence for a selective visual attention disorder”. Dyslexia 10 (4): 339–63. doi:10.1002/dys.284.PMID 15573964.
11-   Ise E, Schulte-Körne G (June 2010). "Spelling deficits in dyslexia: evaluation of an orthographic spelling training”. Ann Dyslexia 60 (1): 18–39. Doi: 10.1007/s11881-010-0035-8. PMID 20352378.
12-  ^ a b Seki A, Kassai K, Uchiyama H, Koeda T (March 2008). "Reading ability and phonological awareness in Japanese children with dyslexia". Brain Dev. 30 (3): 179–88.

13-  Michael Seid1, Gregory D. Stevens2,James W. Varni3 ‘Parents' Perceptions of Paediatric Primary Care Quality: Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Language, and Access’ Health Services Research Article first published online: 12 AUG 2003 ,DOI: 10.1111/1475-6773.00160

14-  Brian D. Smedley and S. Leonard Syme (2001) Promoting Health: Intervention Strategies from Social and Behavioral Research. American Journal of Health Promotion: January/February 2001, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 149-166.

15-Mary T. Story, Dianne R. Neumark-StzainerNancy E. SherwoodKatrina Holt,Denise SofkaFrederick L. Trowbridge,Sarah E. Barlow,’ Management of Child and Adolescent Obesity: Attitudes, Barriers, Skills, and Training Needs Among Health Care Professionals, ‘Official Journal Of The American Academy Of Pediatrics ,Vol.110 No.Supplement 1 July ,2002pp.210-214.




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