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September 5, 2013

Essay on Eugenics

America has long experimented with the notions of eugenics while the institutionalization of slavery, decline of enfranchisement for women, and the slaughter of Native Americans was its powerful outcome. The underlying motive always lied in the superiority complex of the White Americans who strongly advocated such ideas. As a matter of fact, eugenics, being a broad social, political, and scientific movement, held mirror to the fears of many whites who felt threatened by demographic and economic changes in the twentieth century.  In short, it was Nazism writ large with another name. 
There were eighteen so-called “solutions” chalked out, including geographical isolation, forced sterilization, and euthanasia. In the 1920s and 30s, various states decreed against interracial marriage and ensured the implementation of state-legislated policies regarding compulsory sterilization. Virginia’s “Racial Integrity Act” dictated and gave mandate to the sterilization of individuals who were considered to be “feebleminded”, including the “insane, idiotic, imbecile, or epileptic.” As a result, these states, on the whole, were reported to have sterilized 59,000 people over the 50 years.
The grounds on which the principles of genetic inheritance found its supporters was because eugenicists had presumably concluded that genetically deformed members of society such as the “feeble-minded, criminals, the sexually wanton, blacks including all non-white races would out-reproduce the “normal members” of the society at a faster rate.  
In his study Kuhl traces this remarkable claim by studying the close links that developed between American and German eugenicists for the transfer of scientific ideas, legal and medical practices.  Well documented and rigorously defended, the main thesis of the author is that the continuous and systematic support of U.S. eugenicists their German colleagues to the entrance of the United States in the World War and accession to most measures of Nazi racial policy was an important source of scientific legitimacy of the racist state of Hitler. (Elazar, 1992)
Kühl shows that American eugenicists who were seduced by the rhetoric of Nazi racial regime were not a handful of extremists or marginal, but a considerable group of scientists whose enthusiasm did not seem to alleviate until the rhetoric became reality.
The study of mutations of these relations between the two scientific communities allows the German sociologist and historian to highlight the multiple dimensions of the influence of pressure on the followers of racial hygiene "progress" of American eugenics - including the effectiveness of immigration policy which "combined ethnic and eugenic selection" - and the success of the American eugenics movement by passing laws in favor of forced sterilization.
As in the Weimar Republic, social workers and managers of Public Health were concerned about reducing the cost of protection social and racial hygiene specialists had their eyes turned to the sterilization measures practiced in several states of North America to reduce the cost of "deficient." The reference to the United States comes as the first country to institutionalize forced sterilization, a country that bristles with all medical theories of the time. One explanation often given to explain the status enjoyed by pioneering American eugenics was the presence of blacks, which would have forced an early white population to use a systematic program to improve the race.(Ewen, 2006)




The same explanation was advanced later by American apologists of the Nazi regime as geneticist T. U. H. Ellinger, who compared the persecution of Jews with the brutal mistreatment of blacks in the United States. The doctrine of eugenics Francis Galton gave birth to a fashionable theory at the beginning of the century, in the years 1920 to 1940. A chair of eugenics was created at the University of London in 1904. Membership eugenics spread so rapidly in the academia, especially in Germany, England and the United States.
One of the main motivations of Margaret Sanger, throughout his life, was the obsession of a return to “Natural selection” of people who lived in slums and “that because of their animal nature is reproducing like rabbits and soon went beyond the boundaries of their slum or country, and then contaminate the best elements of the society with diseases and inferior genes.
“The most charitable act a large family can do for one of its children in infancy is to kill him “(1920). “Maternity services for women in slums are harmful to society and race. The charity will only prolong the misery of the unfit “(1922).”No woman and no man shall have the right to become parents without a permit of kinship “(David, 2002). More births and less able people in the society were almost unacceptable. Covertly, the birth control had a purpose to create racial thoroughbreds. 
The links between the eugenics movement and the movement of “birth control” are numerous and visible until 1942. Margaret Sanger explains: “Birth control, which has been criticized as being negative and destructive, is really the biggest and authentic method of eugenics and its integration Eugenics program provides an immediate concrete and realistic power to that science. In fact, the birth control has already been accepted by most lucid and the most discerning of eugenicists themselves, as the most constructive and most necessary measure of racial health non-white population control.
Before eugenicists and all those working on the improvement of the race to succeed, they must facilitate the first birth control. As proponents of birth control, the Eugenics, for example, seek to assist to race through the elimination of the unfit. Both have the same goal but emphasize different methods.(Edwin, 2003)
Trent Franks, Republican of Arizona has prompted reactions in the U.S. stating that “the situation of African Americans is worse today than it was at the time of slavery “ while denouncing the very high number of abortions among African  The United States. If the history of the enslavement of millions Africans “has left indelible scars on the American soul.Yet the half of black children are aborted. Policies today devastate a much largest African-American community than did the related policies to slavery, “said Trent Franks. Some elected officials “are even talking about genocide “, as the organizers of a advertising campaign in Atlanta. 
Giant is the face of a black child with one of the following two sentences: “The
Black children are an endangered species “and “Black women abort their children three times more than white women.” Catherine Davis, the organization Georgia Right to Life well said, referring to the campaign “My people are dying, and no one cares. And I want people to see it. “
Indeed, in the State of Georgia “on 35 000 women who had abortions in 2008, 21 000 were black.” In addition, nationally, 37% of abortions are performed on the members of the African American community that constitutes 13% of the U.S. population.
The organizers of the campaign in Atlanta attack including Margaret Sanger, the founder of the Family Planning Association Planned Parenthood, most clinics are located in black neighborhoods where the advocates of “women’s right to abortion” explain the disproportionate number of abortions in the black community while stating that “unintended pregnancies are many more in this group in others, “for many others, rate translated “eugenic theories which Sanger has taken in 30 years.
“A documentary entitled “Genocide in Black 21st Century America “(Black Genocide in 21st Century America), released last year, provides a link between slavery, eugenics and abortion which is highly propagated among African-American community by white(or say the privileged and superior race in the country). According to the movie, the legalization of abortion was motivated by “eugenics White, Sanger, a feminist icon, whose motive was to destroy black America. Apologists of abortion will say that is because they want to serve the poor.
For 40 years, it has been said that the legalization of abortion is done in the name of “reproductive freedom”, the “right of women”, a “free choice”. However, a new documentation states that this rhetoric hides a grim agenda. With a montage of documents, Maafa 21 revealed to the public across America that the real motivation behind the legalization of abortion was eugenics and racial genocide.  The documentary, two-hour shows that the legalization of abortion was part of a campaign that was created, promoted and financed by a small group of elites. Most frightening is that this effort continues today with the same financial and political support.
Viewers are also surprised to learn that the American eugenics movement led to the Nazi effort to create the “racial purity” and that this effort was financed largely with money from American companies. We also learn that the first anti-abortion groups in America were radical groups for civil rights in the 1960s, whose leaders had seen that eugenics and genocide black were the driving forces behind the call for the legalization of abortion. (Henslin, 2009)

Some people are surprised to know the many links between a number of U.S. abortion, “family planning”, which is its founder Margaret Sanger and the eugenics movement in the U.S. Sanger gave a speech to a chapter of the Ku Klux Klan and was later invited back to speak to 12 “similar groups” as she wrote in her autobiography.
In the documentary, we learn that “family planning” is part advice sterilization operating in over 30 states. The legalization of abortion is not about women’s rights and reproductive freedom; it was introduced as the program of racial elimination, substantiating the doctrine of eugenics.
All in all, different programs involving eugenics have remained at the heart of American society to stamp down any demographic or economic change. Rather, the aim of eugenics has been to eliminate the unwanted segments of society such as Native Americans and African Americans in the context of United States.























References

Elazar Barkan,(1992) The retreat of scientific racism: changing concepts of race in Britain and the United States between the world wars (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
Ewen & Ewen, Typecasting: On the Arts and Sciences of Human Inequality (New York, Seven Stories Press, 2006).
Edwin Black, War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create a Master Race (Four Walls Eight Windows, 2003). Waragainsttheweak.com ISBN 1-56858-258-7
David Galton, Eugenics: The Future of Human Life in the 21st Century (Abacus, 2002)
Henslin, James (2009) “Sociology: A down-to-earth approachPrentice Hall; 10 edition









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