Management and Leadership
Leadership can be defined as a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task". Definitions all-encompassing of nature of leadership have also appeared. Alan Keith of Genentech states that, "Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen." According to Ken "SKC" Ogbonnia, "effective leadership is the ability to successfully integrate and maximize available resources within the internal and external environment for the attainment of organizational or societal goals."
Leadership and management are synonymous with each other. However, there are differences between the two. At the same time, they are necessarily intertwined and complement each other. Any effort to separate the two is likely to cause more problems than it solves. Much has been writing about the differences.
The manager’s job encompasses planning, organization, coordination, and implementation of ideas while leaders play a pivotal role in inspiring and motivating the employees. In his 1989 book “On Becoming a Leader,” Warren Bennis composed a list of the differences. He states that the leader is a person who innovate original ideas. His main focus is the people who work under him. He inspires trust among his workers and has a wide horizon. He always makes right decisions. His role and skills play a pivotal role in the development of the company.
Luce states that by improving the organizational culture, the organization can be made more effective and productive (Luce, 1984). Of course culture per se does not directly increase profit or decrease cost. But it influences the behavior of people in an organization. Because the companies have certain common cultural attributes, other companies can become excellent by emulating them (Peters and Waterman, 1982).
Moskowitz identifies the following as characteristics of working places in good companies not found in other companies:
· Make people feel they are part of a team
· Encourage open communication
· Stress on quality
· Profit sharing
· Reduce rank distinctions (Moskowitz, 1985).
Although corporate culture is an invisible and elusive concept, it significantly affects all spheres of corporate life activities, ranging from day-to-day routines to corporate strategy. How much mileage a corporation can get out of this culture depends on how it is nurtured and managed. It is proven fact that companies with strong corporate culture maintain leadership in their business activities.
Effective leader knows that how to set a high priority on employees. Good supervising involves working with employees to establish suitable goals, action plans and time lines. A good leader actually motivates people and gives them a burning desire to achieve their goal (Steyrer, 1998). The supervisor delegates and also provides ongoing guidance and support to the employee as they complete their action plans. Rarely can job goals be established without considering other aspects of an employee's life, e.g., time available for training, career preferences, personal strengths and weaknesses, etc. A supervisor is sometimes confronted with walking a fine line between being a supervisor and the employee's confident (Tannenbaum, 1964).
Usually the supervisor understands the organization and the employee's profession better than the employee. Consequently, the supervisor is in a unique position to give ongoing advice to the employee about job and career. The employee can look to the supervisor as a model for direction and development. A good leader can be a priceless addition to the career of an employee.
The purpose of managerial leadership is to integrate the interests of the individual and the organization. This integration can take the form of translating organizational requirements into how they will affect the individual and the nature of the work to be done; setting overall goals and directions important both to the unit and to the individual are also important elements in managerial leadership. Vital too, is the most humanistic side, the personal relationship between leader and follower.
Naturally, what the managerial leader does is important to organizational member’s satisfaction and commitment to mission related issues and objectives. The managerial leadership role is also important; one’s supervisor serves as a representative to higher levels of management in soliciting information, rewards, rewards and resources. Finally, the formal leader functions as a buffer that absorbs shocks from either directions, as well as serving as a formal link to the other specialization and levels of authority within the organization. In all these roles, the managerial leader’s interest in, and commitment to, the well being of his or her followers is essential.
Tannenbaum, Robert, Weschler, Irving and Massarik, Fred,(2000) Leadership and Organization: A Behavioral Science approach, McGrew-Hill, New York, 1961
Moskowitz, Milton,(2004) Lessons from the best companies to work for, California Management Review, Winter 1985.
Murphy, Patrick, E.(2001) Creating Ethical Corporate Structures, Sloan Management Review, Winter
Ott, J. S.(2008) Understanding Organizational Climate and Culture, Handbook of Human Resource Management in Government.
Bass, 1998. San Francisco