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October 2, 2013

Essay on Maslow and Holistic Dynamic Theory

Maslow and Holistic Dynamic Theory
Maslow’s theory is based on five basic assumptions about motivation: (1) the whole organism is motivated at any one time; (2) motivation is complex, and unconscious motives often underlie behavior; (3) people are recurrently motivated by one need or another; (4) people in different cultures are motivated by the same basic needs; and (5) the basic needs can be arranged on a hierarchy.(Julian, 2002)
The hierarchy of needs diagram of a theory developed from observations made ​​in the 1940s by psychologist Abraham Maslow's motivation. The article explains that Maslow's theory of motivation, A Theory of Human Motivation, was released in 1943. It does not represent the hierarchy as a pyramid, but this representation has emerged in the field of psychology, mainly for convenience. Maslow talks, meanwhile, about hierarchy which has a dynamic vision.
The pyramid consists of five main levels. According to Maslow, we should first look to satisfy every need of a given level before considering the needs located to next level of the pyramid. For example, it is preferable to seek to satisfy physiological needs before the needs of security: that's why in a situation where our survival is at stake, we would be willing to take risks.(Robbins, 2004)
According to the order proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943, we cannot claim to satisfy a new requirement that when the precedents are already unsatisfied. The satisfaction of basic needs prevents neurosis, the involvement of the last two complex needs is necessary for the personal development.
The first and foremost need is the physiological one. It involves maintaining homeostasis of the organism (breathe, drink, defecate, eat, sleep, warmth): regulation of large biological balances necessary to maintain a state of physical health. It is necessary for the survival of the individual because they are compelling and may outweigh the conscience if they are not satisfied.
The presence at this level need to procreate is debatable. This is useful for this case does not seem to necessarily present in all individuals, so that there are different interpretations.  Security needs are those related to the aspiration of each of us to be assured of next day as physically and morally safe and sound. They refer to the need of shelter (housing, house), income security and resources, physical security against violence (crime, assault, etc), moral and psychological safety, family stability, or at least a certain emotional security and social security (health).
Secondly, the emotional need of belonging is necessary. Sometimes called "need for social recognition", the need to belong to a family or a group results in the search for communication and expression. This need for integration in the social bond is consistent with the need for recognition and consideration. The need for love must be taken into consideration. It passes through the identity (name, first name), the need to love and be loved, to have intimate relations with a spouse (form a couple), to have friends, be part of a cohesive group, to feel accepted and, logically, not to feel lonely or rejected.
This need is reflected in the behavior or sometimes atavistic herd of human beings. The vast majority of people could not live without others. The experiments show clearly lonely psycho-emotional disorders, behavioral occur when an individual is unable to find partners for too long a period of time. The deprivation of others in an individual’s life is the same as sleep deprivation for too long.  It brings about the bouts of isolation, or at times results in solitary confinement. The inability to meet this kind of need is equally detrimental and dangerous to an individual.
Man needs to develop self-esteem and gain respect from others. He needs to care for recognition, have a rewarding activity in the field of work, or in the recreation. This is particularly the need to achieve, to develop (in his own eyes and the eyes of others) through an activity. Human beings also need to plan, to have goals, beliefs, to express their ideas.
The need for accomplishment of a work allows an individual to be able to achieve its full potential: "What a man can be, he must become". But to achieve this "need for achievement" can only be realized with an ability to master all the requirements above.
Maslow's hierarchy can provide another view of the relationship problems between couples, for example. Indeed, both partners may seek to fill their needs differently but this tendency can create an imbalance.  
Maslow's hierarchy of models is one of the most recognized and widely-read theories especially in management training. This model has the advantage of being readily understandable and striking, but it has many limitations that have led to its absolute rebuttal. This raises questions about the legitimacy of the model taking into account the social context of the population or individual.
Maslow's hierarchy can be criticized for what concerns the need for social recognition, which would be sought after the first two needs (physiological and safety needs of the body). The need for social recognition, or of the social bond, appears to be a full component of human personality, to meet them is mandatory. As such one can cite the case of babies left without care than other physiological and emotional contact without, dying not to be contacted and stimulated mentally. One can also cite the case of "wild children" who have fulfilled their discovery until their "physiological needs" and "security of the body" but have not so far developed a normal human personality.
In addition, the foundation of Maslow's model is based on the hierarchy of needs. Or sometimes the individual seeks to satisfy higher order needs even when the base of the hierarchy remains dissatisfied. This hierarchy imposes a greater need is met only if they meet the other, while a step may be omitted. For example, a casual worker may be more motivated than those who benefit from the security employment.
Moreover, and as in all models in layers, the transition to the upper layers calls into question the stability of the base layers. For example, the need for esteem may tend to neglect the need for security during adventurous times but socially valued activities (challenges and various records). Unfortunately, the research could not confirm the specific order of the stages of Maslow's hierarchy and it was difficult to measure objectively self-actualization.  
The need is expressed by the subconscious brain as an emotion that signals the presence and satisfaction or dissatisfaction, while the desire is expressed by the conscious mind in words or acts free. For example, everyone needs to survive if attacked by the attack or escape cons (unconscious or instinctive actions). On the other hand, the wish to own a motorcycle is a desire.
The sale uses different techniques to meet the need or desire. The need is a sense of lack or deprivation accompanied by a desire to see it disappear. Some authors therefore advocate a new hierarchy, not based on need but on desire, and thus about demand.
Basic needs come from the sympathetic system (manages life, survival, reproduction), while other needs are from the parasympathetic system (that manages the needs of state security).
When the sympathetic system kicks in, it uses a network of different nervous system and parasympathetic action on the subjects is different depending on the system actually in action. For example, when a person is on the likeable (ie situations to protect themselves from what is perceived as a severe attack), the resources allocated to the stomach is minimal compared to the resources allocated to self-defense. Digestion is therefore wrong in a situation of insecurity and stress.
By cons, when the person feels safe, the parasympathetic system manages the digestion that occurs normally and comfortably. The satisfaction of a product need a positive emotion while not meeting the need produces a negative emotion. Careful analysis of emotions can correctly identify the need identified. (Kirton, 2009)
Neuroscience has highlighted both the role of the pleasure of suffering in brain activity which supports the decision process Above all, Maslow aptly discusses the need for belonging and relationships (brotherhood, solidarity, friendliness) and the need for recognition (esteem, honor or power), which he said shows that man needs to have a place in society. At the top of the pyramid is the need for self-realization, psychological completeness and social completion.
At the base of the pyramid we find the basic necessities to sustain life: breathing, feeding, elimination, temperature maintenance, rest and sleep, muscular activity, neurological, physical contact, sexual life. A lack or deprivation in any of these basic needs will inevitably have an impact on other needs, the construction of upper floors is impossible. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, these physiological needs have priority. Generally, a person seeks to satisfy his physiological needs before all others (Maslow, 1970). Usually we try to satisfy our need for food until they meet our need for love.
These basic needs are also necessary for survival needs oxygen, fluids, food, maintenance of body temperature, elimination, shelter, rest and sex. People with disabilities often rely on others to satisfy one or more (or all) of these basic physiological needs. However, the power to fill sexual needs seems more difficult to achieve and many are deprived forever. But it is not necessary that a requirement is fully satisfied before another need appears, just as it is in large part.
The above floor is the psychological needs of safety (physical and psychological, employment, family stability and professional), property (having things and places itself) and environmental control (power over the outside). Again, a flaw in how these needs could collapse the whole. Maintaining the physical security involves the reduction or elimination of threats to the body or the person's life. The danger may be an illness, accident, risk or exposure to a hazardous environment.
It should also be noted that sometimes the needs of physical security may be more important than the satisfaction of physiological needs in the case of people with cerebral palsy and prone to frequent seizures, falls serious associated with lack of balance, or risk of great injury because of involuntary spastic movement. For people severely affected, the risk of choking on food intake may also be present: the person caring for it will then ensure it is sufficiently comfortable and safe (it do not be afraid to fall or get burned by hot food, which could strengthen its spasms) to be fed without problems.(Porter, 2006)
The third stage is represented by social needs, emotional (being accepted as we are, giving and receiving love and affection, having friends and a good communication network), esteem from others (to be recognized as having value) and belonging (we live in society and our existence depends on the acceptance of others with their differences, as well as membership in a group). To feel safe psychologically, a person must know what they can expect from others, including family members and health professionals, as well as interventions, new experiences and conditions of its environment with new experiences that can induce psychological insecurity.
The desire to meet those needs occurs when physiological and safety needs are satisfied, because only when a person feels secure that she has the time and strength to seek love and belonging and sharing that love with others (Rogers, 1961).
If these first three baselines are met, there may be emerging (Principle of emergence) other requirements, called "secondary". These are development needs, which are about self-realization, like being free and able to fill the gaps.(Leavitt, 2000)
The fourth floor is the need of self-esteem: a feeling of being useful and have value, the starting point of self acceptance and developing independence. Everyone must feel esteem for themselves and feel that others have consideration for her. The need for self-esteem is linked to the desire for power, achievement, merit, competence and mastery, self-confidence to face others, independence and freedom. A person also needs to be recognized and appreciated by others. With these two requirements met, the person has the confidence in her and feel useful, if not met, the person may feel weak and inferior (Maslow, 1970).
Meeting this need will lead an individual to the top of the pyramid and reach self-realization (to increase knowledge, develop their values, "something new", create beauty, to have an inner life) to reach somehow our full potential as human beings.(Marquis, 2009)
In many individuals, this need for self-actualization needs include cognitive understanding (novelty, exploration, knowledge), and aesthetic needs (music, art, beauty, order). But this self-actualization is never reached, and calls for continuous research. The person who has updated the mature mind and personality is multidimensional and is often able to assume and to complete multiple tasks and draws satisfaction from job well done. It can judge its appearance, the quality of his work and how it solves problems without complying fully with the views of others. Although she failures and doubts, she generally faces realistically. How a person manages to satisfy the need for self-actualization depends on his/her current needs, environment and stressors.
To actualize his/her full potential the individual must create a balance between its needs, stressors and its adaptability to changes and demands of the organism and its environment. Self-actualization is defined by multiple characteristics.(Manz, 1998)
In short, the hierarchy of needs means that man attains the full development of his psyche that he is satisfied on all levels: physiological, safety, love (belonging), esteem (recognition) and self-fulfillment (creativity). Moreover, if Maslow is well known in the field of management, his research concerned the general psychology, and it was his successors who have applied its conclusions to the sphere of business. He himself only wrote notes on this subject, where there is little discussion of motivation. Maslow is ultimately an optimistic to the extent that he considers it possible that workers may, in their work, find fulfillment, personal achievement, provided that management is participatory.  



















References
Porter, L. W., & Lawler, E. E.(2006) Managerial Attitudes and Performance. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
Kirton, Michael J.(2009) “Adapters and innovators: A description and a measure”. Journal of Applied, 622 pages
Leavitt, J, Harold (2000) “Readings in Managerial Psychology,” University of Chicago Press, 1989 769 pages
Servant Shepherd Ministries. (n.d.). A foundation for understanding biblical passages on leadership. Retrieved August 26, 2007 from http://www.servantshepherd.com/BModel.htm
Julian, L.S. (2002). God is my CEO. Avon, MA: Adams Media.
Manz, C.C. (1998). The leadership wisdom of Jesus. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Marquis, B. L. & Huston, C. J. (2009). Leadership roles and management functions
Marquis, B. L. & Huston, C. J. (2009). Leadership roles and management functions in nursing: Theory and application (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.
Robbins, Stephen, P.(2004) Managing organizational conflict: A Nontraditional Approach, Eaglewood Cliffs, N. J. Prentice-Hall.


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