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October 13, 2013

Essay on Order Maintenance Responsibilities

Order Maintenance Responsibilities
Order Maintenance responsibility is one of three major components of the criminal justice system of the United States, along with courts and corrections. The maintenance of order (MO) is the set of operations to maintain civil peace.
The law enforcement is to ensure the rights of individuals faced with large-scale violent events as a riot, including the right to security of person (Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) the right of movement and the right to property (Reiss, 2002).
Events with a large scale, the forces for maintaining order must also have significant resources. It is therefore important to align these operations in order to limit the protection of people and goods. The maintenance of order may indeed be an excuse to restrict individual freedoms, especially the right to freedom of opinion and expression (and therefore peaceful demonstration.
In America the role of police, aside from maintaining order and service functions, is also the investigation of suspected criminal activity and the referral of the results of investigations and of suspected criminals to the courts. Law enforcement in America serves at different levels of government and different agencies. They are also assigned the huge responsibility of spotting the criminal activities and preventing them.  They are also entitled to issue and comply with warrants, writs and other orders of the court.(Kelling, 2002) 
The features of law enforcement are in place as preventive therefore expected to be a major gathering at risk of degenerating. The concept of "risk to degenerate" is unclear and depends on the discretion of the authorities and public opinion. Examples include:
The forces of law and order may also be there to protect against the protesters, demonstrators against; spontaneous demonstrations: the lack of organization governing the demonstrators and security service may fear excesses; sporting events with an audience known for its violence (hooliganism); disasters: to enable the rescue and prevent looting.
In France, the maintenance of order within the jurisdiction of the state, then the prefect in a department, all operations are conducted under its control and only the written submissions that it delivers provides the legal foundation of action of the police (CRS Company Intervention or gendarmerie mobile).
Specific tactics which are used in France as precaution include monitoring of large gatherings, by observers in height and in civilian observers in the crowd at the end to detect the beginnings of violence; deterrent presence of law enforcement, too visible a presence on the other hand can "inflame the minds";limitation of movement in order to protect sensitive areas such as public buildings or who may be the target of violence (e.g. persons of foreign origin in the case of race riots), condemning the streets or filtering access; presence of highly mobile teams (therefore not equipped) can easily penetrate into the crowd and get the troublemakers.
 In France, the law enforcement is the responsibility of the national police and gendarmerie, in particular:
Gendarmerie mobile
 Republican Security Companies (CRS).
 Company's security and intervention / Company departmental intervention
 The Anti Crime Brigade
 Other military forces can be mobilized by requisition, if necessary.( Albert, 2007)

References
Reiss Jr, Albert J. (2002). "Police Organization in the Twentieth Century". Crime and Justice
Kelling, George L., Mary A. Wycoff (December 2002). Evolving Strategy of Policing: Case Studies of Strategic Change. National Institute of Justice
Albert Langeluttig (2007). The Department of Justice of the United States. Johns Hopkins Press.



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