The word "performance" has two meanings. In the first, we put in the report that was produced (outputs) and consumption factors (inputs) required to achieve production. The units' work are either physical (tonnes, etc..) Or in monetary economics, we talk about performance, productivity, profitability or efficiency In psychology we speak.. "Instrumentality" means the achieve a goal. Secondly, the word "performance" refers to a comparison between what the company intends to do and what it has accomplished. Here we take into account the degree of achievement of the objective, that is to say, the efficiency. In psychology, the term "expectation" (hope to achieve a goal) is used.
In management, the problem of key performance the concept of "Social Audit" is more delicate. Indeed, if we admit that the activities of the company do not appreciate is only in the light of a single appearance but by examining a sequential and iterative process, we understand that the diagnostic performance can introduce bias and of questionable evaluation criteria. In psychology, we speak of "valence" of subjective value, subject to the desirability. As highlighted Louart P and C Beaucourt (2004), the measurement methods may quickly turn to the political act under the guise of management criteria.
As a result, the performance of the act requires work, given the theories of motivation, a redefinition and in context. Performance assumes a priori competition, adaptation to the environment, economy, efficiency, scalable skills (acquired and required), etc.. In this regard, the instrumentation (dashboards), always questionable, suspicious, dependent on established conventions (see accounting standards) is to ensure the validity of the information collected. Similarly, the organizational process to achieve the desired results lends itself to images (metaphors) mechanistic efficiency, organic, sports, etc..
In total, separate lights do they come from the theoretical perspectives used? We believe including the agency theory and the resource that profile the major themes of HRM differently. We feel, we also need to revisit the context of recent developments in research in management sciences (Hatchuel and Laufer, 2000).
Management, like all scientific disciplines, based on practices but also on prevailing theories, that is to say on mainstream analysis providing plausible representations of the complexity of business operations and by declination, the ins and outs of performance.
Therefore, it should reverse the normal course of reasoning. The logically should lead to consider that from a performance capacity (efficiency), the company and the HR function seek to engage the action producing the expected effect (efficacy). This requires reasoning (effectiveness) resulting in a real action, in its reality and its results.
To do this, we will analyze the social performance looking, at first, transfer jobs, and in a second time, their effectiveness.
1. The transfer of jobs
1.1. Skills valued by resource theory
On the one hand, the world economy has moved from a uniform mass product economy to a variety of products. This variety, corresponding to the expectations of consumers, required flexibility of production units (see the theory of requisite variety: Marmuse, 1997). The evolution of technology has followed the same path: robotic, digital information technology, controls, etc.. Whatever the distance, e-mail allows instant contact with the customer, supplier, banker.
We observe a broad mechanization. This is the case of the computerization of administrative tasks for global software: SAP, browsers of HR tools, tools for planning, relationship management employees (Employee Relationship Management ERM), net of people- (global solution strategic human resource management), HR information systems, continuous and E-HRM (Intranet, internal job kiosk and Internet). The computerization of function abandonment of certain tasks and the development of new roles (Castagnos, Le Berre, 2003).
The dependence of the labor to build the accounting result was discussed by both researchers and practitioners alike. The answer came from the theory of resources and skills. This managerial design focuses the image of the company with other business partners (stakeholders)
The tools are put in perspective. Indicators, as in other functions, can be classified according to whether they provide information
- Means (metering factors or characteristics)
- On the environment (external measurement information) or
- The outcome (measure provided).
Dashboards that combine most useful indicators are presented in the major services of the company: purchasing, inventory methods, production, etc..
For example, in production or on the whole process, it is to find areas for improvement, especially on "best practices." There are many examples: ISO 9000, Six Sigma (statistical reduction process variability), Lean (just enough), 5S (better organization of the workstation), Kaizen, Kanban, visual management, one-piece flow. All (quality, time costs) tends to divide the cycle time of production, reduce scrap and eliminate defects.
In this functional presentation (Fayol) often adds a presentation space horizon (institutions, agencies, production units, etc..) And time (short term and long term). Software packages such as ERP (enterprise resource planing) integrates all of these data by classifying synthetic predefined indicators.
However, note that the company has its own register means (social peace, environment, internal consistency, loyalty, teamwork, presenteeism, etc..) To obtain a good correlation ability / performance, is ie to increase its expected profit maximization. Like a loan that generates financial costs, the mobilization of these resources has a cost but enhances the results of the company.
Strengthening the social cohesion necessary for all life in society can it combined in a positive circularity, with no less necessary economic efficiency. Economic efficiency is measured in terms of the depth audit by the accounting. The actions of men do they contribute to the economic results and vice versa? This he goes through a clear business strategy?
We can see that the logic of costs is pregnant. It is a battle of indicators. The cost approach is a mechanical productivity.
In general, social law has developed to meet two objectives: to entrust the management of a company workforce and protect the employee. Since World War II, the state sponsor of authoritarian planning for the public and private sector incentives for service has established itself as an active participant in economic life. The employment contract defined as a commitment indenture of a person to work for and under the subordination of another person for a wage controls the competence, performance and potential of the employee by the employer only.
The classification of contracts in force in the world of work described in the diagram below describes the magnitude but also the variability of situations:
Based on the theory of resources and expertise, the call to solve complex problems, under the heading of personal development (company itself, Aubrey, 2001, or employability Gazier, 2003) alters the employment relationship and psychological involvement. We ask people to take their career with a lot of energy, focus their perspectives on issues before any individual, the plunge of the business (by encouraging Plans Redundancy underway since 2002 in the major industrial groups, for example) to increase their initiative and responsiveness (project management and innovation) capabilities.
If the authority of the leader is increasingly replaced by customer and market forms of control induce paradoxical situations:
- By providing autonomy ambiguous since subject to specific objectives in so results requirements
- While seeking to empower as well as formal constraints are increasing through certifications, standards and standardizations imposed
- Until a very strong staff discontinuously because of the lack of job involvement, the succession of missions, memberships varying working groups and project.
Thus, the adaptive capacity proactivity and autonomy of action to meet the needs of modern organizations. Companies, like all employees, are forced to ongoing efforts to adjust and adapt to the market. Structures become more complex and opaque. Although permanent contracts remain the majority, their contents soften. They include a commitment to broad or evolving missions and finalize adjustment clauses (contracts for construction or goals, exclusive services, non-competition clause of geographical mobility, etc..). In some productive sectors, this leads to complex relational configurations where relationships are based on joint ownership of the means of production and control objectives and results.
In this separation of economic and social, the negative effects of increasingly reported (stress, motivation, commodification of labor, prevailing insecurity, etc.). Reposition the leading questions all the meaning to be given to current developments.
However, for the individual, insecurity and uncertainty are either incurred or assumed. Thus, "the solo work" within a network, from one side imposed by companies is, on the other hand, sought for the sake of independence. Therefore, the demand for social protection moves to the "flexicurity", term used to describe the relationships Scandinavian jobs.
The power steering is a resource and a constraint. Enchassé, "embeded" according to Granovetter, it is invisible, integrated so self evident. The "indifference" region (Barnard) or the "acceptance" (Simon, in Rojot p 233) area allow the subordinate to find normal injunctions "to do". But if the perception of resources and constraints change, these areas will move to alter the boundaries of employment. Contagion and conventional and implicit imitation are therefore displaced.
1.2. Intellectual territoriality jobs
New spaces and territories to conquer (the new "terra incognita") are also required on the intellectual content of the new jobs "tertiairisée" society. It is therefore to imagine a new way of thinking in business activity, that is to say, a new effectiveness.
For example, the scope and the territoriality of jobs need to be rethought. Thus, in the early years of the thirteenth century, the West was dependent on the unifying principles of European spirituality supported by the Church of Rome. The aristocrat Andreas Lobera, eager to answer the call of the fourth crusade to Jerusalem, however, was not inclined to face the rigors of travel and the abomination of the heathen. So he walked, around his property four times a day for a year to travel the equivalent of the distance between the castle of the holy city. This concept of travel is reported in its Crônicas del santo peregrinaje. Nearly six hundred years later, the soldier Xavier de Maistre, depicts a static trip made in his room alone. The travelogue is mainly that of a fertile and fulfilling human enterprise. To know who we are, it is necessary not to stand still?
Employment in our society "tertiairisée" is immaterial and intellectualized kind. It mainly depends on new territory: that of knowledge and the knowledge that everyone, individually and collectively implements.
The primitive accumulation of knowledge is assumed in its almost entirely by the company as a whole. Educators, the education and training system, public research centers, provide the most important part of this accumulation by transmitting and making available a decisive part of knowledge that is the common culture. The people, for their part, have to own the culture and use of knowledge so that these are in themselves increased. This individual asset is also a collective asset. It is both a social wealth produced by society and individuals. It is real when the person appropriates the social knowledge and implements.
Companies have and almost free of knowledge capital they merely supplement and adapt to their specific needs. This capital increase throughout life.
However, there is some empowerment skills in relation to the work consumed by businesses. The commitment of the employee to a particular firm weakens, whatever efforts it makes. The company itself is contingent when the employee acquires an autonomy of action and ability to thrive outside the organization. Under these conditions, the management staff must meet conflicting requirements. The company wants to capture the creativity of staff, channel it into action and predetermined goals and get their submission. They must also create spaces and territories to self development and inventiveness.
French unions designed at the time of industrial activities seem to have difficulties to integrate these new dimensions jobs. The British unions are worried long, those who participate as direct actors in the implementation of vocational training programs.
2. Rethinking social effectiveness in business
2.1. The multiplication of the proposed indicators
Under these conditions, the management staff must meet conflicting requirements. The company wants to capture the creativity of staff, channel it into action and predetermined goals and get their submission. They must also create spaces and territories to self development, creativity. Thus, many research proposed to identify relevant indicators to measure performance.
a - The performance measurement via the social report or dashboard is criticized when it comes to assessing the relevance of certain HRM practices (Lacoursière, Fabi, St-Pierre, 2004). Financial and accounting dimensions, couples products, markets, political and economic data (corporate citizen, globalization, etc..) Are superimposed to wage aspects related to employment.
The performance prediction is possible only by analyzing the objective characteristics of employees. We therefore sought to determine the predictors of efficiency, that is to say, for the components of fitness. These characteristics of the individual variables are well known (Alis Poilpot-Rocaboy 2000; Commeiras, Naro, 2000). They invite the employee to increase or reduce work efficiency.
b - The referees can also take the more traditional forms. This is the case with M Kalika (1988), which has four roots in organizational efficiency:
• compliance with the formal structure
• relationships between the components of the organization,
• the quality of the information flow,
• the flexibility of the structure.
To account for performance, P Gilbert and M Carpenter (2004) combine many factors that explain the direction sought by the assessments HR (modes of governance, strategy and application of general management, size and structure of the company). Indeed, a performance measurement result by reference to resources (financial, time budget, etc.). Available to the employee.
c - Regarding voltages roles of employees, three orientations are theoretically possible (Grima, 2004).
- Performance amounted to a moderate level of tension,
- The performance is low when uncertainty about the best attitude is strong (cognitive and motivational perception)
- The performance did not correlate with the role strain because it is a complex built. The lack of relationship is also possible due to the complexity of the multi-dimensional performance.
d - The strengthening of confidence or other, motor involvement also affects the efficiency of the employee. The employee feels reassured when he gets good results. Its performance is determined by its involvement in the organization, in the decisions of his superiors. Membership of the employee participates naturally the amount of compensation that is granted. Everything fits. The amount allocated is of operability due to the motivation it provides (Le Berre, Castagnos, 2003). However, the company is trying to identify the direct and objective conditions of wage efficiency without seeking prima facie involvement.
e - The optimum is the corollary notion of efficiency: it is a variety of options and specific measure indicators. Recall that the ratios provide information that is unclear and difficult to read.
The HRM activities (Arcand, Bayad, Fabi, 2002) may be significantly associated with performance indicators relate to communication, organization of work, performance evaluation and compensation. Here, the authors also rely on evidence already established performance: motivation, satisfaction, absenteeism, social climate, innovation, quality, productivity and profitability. In short, it is fuzzy and low operational situation.
f - The work of J Allouche, M Charpentier C Guillot (2003) are also based on a long list of indicators of firm performance: market price, cost of capital, rate of profit, sales growth, satisfaction customer, labor productivity, quality, turnover, etc..
Overall, the performance depends on:
• Stress and tension existing at work, without ambiguity and role conflict are connected
• a cognitive and motivational perspective,
• complex social constructs involving a multidimensional approach.
When it comes to resolving a crisis and practice choices under constraints, decisions are often made to the detriment of HR. In this sense the plural is perverse performance and sometimes leads to disenchantment. The explanation, management companies is provided by the development perspective of efficiency. There is a gap between the concrete recognition system employees (skills assessment, evaluation) and the performance objective established by reference to a single criterion too often disconnected from social considerations.
In this context, the employer's policy that no longer controls the reality of skills therefore tends to move from the direct rule of the work activity to the domination of the upstream and downstream work. It extends the time for non-work, opportunities to develop and organize time off work. The whole life is subject to the constraints of the new work. Systems funded pension savings confiscated for the benefit of financial institutions managing the lifetime of work, are an example. Working time, whatever reduced weighs more heavily on the life and times at regular hours and continuous work.
Therefore, targets and grids performance indicators become subtle. Assessment, multiple multivariate models become complex in the design of the meta-organization defined by the theory of translation (Akrich, Callon and Latour, 1988).
The configurational approach that involves the idea of a holistic process and incremental decision is, too, a comprehensive and complete reasoning in HRM. However, its implementation does not guarantee an increase in firm performance, but to have an external and internal alignment modes of management of the company (Allani-Soltan, Bayad, Arcand, 2004).
2.2. A new contractual relationship (contract theory)
Building on the design of the entrepreneur as Schumpeter (1935) was presented to us, it is clear that understanding the phenomenon linked to human activity that generates added value, changes our perception of the border company. Indeed, for him, "the entrepreneur is an economic agent whose function is to perform new combinations (innovations) and is the active element of the performance." Schumpeter texts describing the contractor appear an astonishing modernity. The contractor is also "used depending on a company," says the concept of intrapreneurship. Citing the example of specialists, it dissociates intrapreneurship in the organization itself and reflects the notion of self-employment.
Entrepreneurship, according to Schumpeter (2004, repr.) Is defined as the ability to go forward alone in considering that safety and resistance are not real arguments against the decision and the action. These risk appetite.
In a second discovery, the author states the obvious permanent restructuring of "production elements" where innovation creates demand and fuel growth. So entrepreneurs are "people who take action to provide new forms of industrial and commercial operations." As a result, they have no sustainable and closed relationship with a precise operation including isolated. Similarly, ownership of assets required to operate is not a necessary sign of the action taken. We see, "worn" or not by a separate structure for shaping their wage income, an entrepreneur can take action in one or more structures to perform new combinations of production, whether or not stabilized ( employment or undated), whether or not the owner of the means. By cons, it can not act alone and isolated as involved in the implementation of new combinations of value creation. Its qualities are summarized as follows: it is
- Able to recognize opportunities inaccessible to the majority of their contemporaries and to make good decisions (Steve Jobs / Apple, Gates / Microsoft Bill, Serge Kampf / Cap Gemini). This concept is developed by B.Quinodon (2003) and A.Fayolle (2004);
- Able to innovate and to identify opportunities in a given environment, new combinations of factors of production (Schumpeter), innovation and creativity (Drucker, 1984; Stevenson, 1990; Danjou, 2004);
- Able to realize the choices and the Contractor is a coordinator of resources (Stevenson, Jarillo, Gumpert, 1985; Bygrave, Hofer, 1991);
In this perspective, the manager is limited to defining effective and related human resource indicators. It is often the salary and its various forms.
The propensity for opportunistic behavior latent in parties, unfolds because:
• conflicts of interest between individuals obliged to cooperate but tendentiously deploy strategies to serve their own satisfaction
• the ambient heterodoxy about the choice of institutional regulators efficient behavior.
In fact, the functioning of the economy is not based on proven principles. The market economy is supposed to regulate human activities in the light of the principles of coherence that seem to have been forgotten. For example, the classic designs of the economy have extolled the benefits of free trade. But the followers of international trade (see Ricardo) staring in the institutional framework rules. In fact:
• they applied mobility products and not resources (capital, people, technology). The latter were mainly circulated within all politically constituted (eg the European Union)
• they advocated the opening between homogeneous groups, that is to say between competing economies and not complementary,
• they recommended the creation of an international currency and a fixed exchange rate system.
In this context of regular auction to lower the value of work (Castagnos, Le Berre, 2003), who still dares predict a future reconciliation of economic and social performance of companies if you do not return to the description of expectations and interests, so the payment of social partner?
The Allouche, Charpentier and Guillot (2003) study also means wages as a good action variable. The remunerations and have no influence on the performance, except in the case of employee ownership. This view is confirmed, with some precautions, Raad (2004).
In addition, the firm equates the aforementioned ways, the interest of the employee liaison / employee satisfaction. Thus, a profit sharing plan (SVR) is usually installed as a prerequisite that the company is financially sound. Better if the installation of the RPB causes, moreover, an increase in performance! Nevertheless, in this design, motivation is seen as a means of action under an instrumental logic.
Type devices sharing personal profit, systems boxes wages, flexible work schedules, illustrate the mediating practices whose purpose is to smooth or minimize conflicting interests.
The difficulty of combining economic and social performance lies elsewhere. When it comes to solving a crisis, practice choices under constraints, decisions are often made to the detriment of HR. The company is it faulty? Nothing is less certain.
It is often found that the company usually decides its wage policy under the single objective correlation ability - performance and ignores the second is subjective (interest of the employee - employee satisfaction). Certainly, as a dichotomous perception may seem Manichean or representative of a divergence of interests irreparable. However, the synthesis is possible, including the concept of negotiated compensation (JC Castagnos, M Le Berre, 2000 and 2001).
The sharp distinction that labor law between the control result of the work and control the work that is supposed to draw the line between the commercial contract and employment contract becomes tenuous. The contract of employment is within the organization, the commercial contract is outside. Inside, the control and subordination are the essence of the relationship. Freedom to negotiate implies some externality. This is changing in this passionate relationship and if that should be the effectiveness of the new employment relationship.
The refusal of the private appropriation of knowledge and of certain cultural property, the challenge of market exchange knowledge considered public good would result in a gift economy (see certain practices carried out on the web) probably unrealistic and not conducive to value creation.
Indeed, when knowledge (knowledge) is the primary productive force, everything related to the production, orientation, division of knowledge becomes an issue of power for society. The issue of private or public property of the paid or free use of the means of access to knowledge becomes a central issue. So where is the advantage, distinctive and motivating for each employee?
If the company is an "artifact" or representation of collective action, it is up to us whether this new "holism" to supplant modern methodological individualism or the advantage of a constructivist approach to employment relations . In our opinion, like the three stories of Fernand Braudel (continental, rhythmic and events), the management shall certify segmentation, recognition of employee performance and expected results for each partner.