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June 25, 2014

Brand: An Extensive Study

Branding in Other Media
In other media such as television, radio or the press has lived for decades with advertising models that have little to do with today proliferate in the Internet environment where the impact and visibility of the brand remains a factor highly valued and taken into account (Oliver, 1990).
Until the arrival of the current economic crisis, the print media survived on a solid influx of brands and advertisers willing to spend much of their advertising investment in this type of media with full-page ads touting their star product news looking for a direct impact on the reader (Malhotra, 2007).
Some cases such as the broadcast of the Super bowl where advertisers invest huge amounts to advertise their spots can serve as an example to understand that advertising actions are not only based on the return or the immediate response but in construction, reputation and impact of a product or a brand (Wernerfelt, 1995). These processes associated with Branding tactics base their strategy on the exposure of the brand itself.
In the world of sports sponsorships are considered better positioned models for promoting and building brands with clear examples of companies like Bwin who have invested significant amounts of money to become official sponsors of major sports clubs (Malhotra, 2007). Obviously at this point we understand that although we can say that the online advertising business has grown considerably, we still need some maturity to understand and appreciate all that advertising and brand awareness are more than thousands of clicks.

Today, many people have at least one social networking account, they increasingly become more popular because they are full of individuals looking to meet people, to gather and share information and experiences about different things, the development of friendships or professional alliances, finding employment in, or in the business to business marketing, among many other things (Wernerfelt, 1995). The topics and interests are extremely varied, which is why they have become XXI century media. The companies are exploring ways to leverage these platforms, which are presented as potential spaces for positioning brands.
These networks are displacing the messenger and emails. It is highly likely that if a brand interacts with a user of these networks, the latter becoming a "mouthpiece" of the brand, taking into account that each user has at least 60 contacts, the effects this would have are huge. This is why social networks are increasingly influencing consumer awareness because they are a source of "information", while they may not always be true; often reflect a relationship of trust between its members. It is a fact that people trust their friends or acquaintances in any advertising, and then everything depends on the way you talk about the brands (Williams, 1992).
A brand that wants to be on social media must find support among its members, and this requires building trust, we must be credible and that takes time, resources, effort and direction," ie, it is not to be in "fashion"(Micael, 2009).

In order to join a social network, the first thing they ask is personal information such as age, gender, address and even preferences. This is a source of power for businesses since the user alone is segmented, and companies can identify and group individuals (Malhotra, 2007).
These data allow companies to develop initiatives to more easily approach the public who wish to, and through these initiatives, highly targeted and convey information that is of value to members. In this way, both organizations and users get value information for each other by generating and receiving information (Micael, 2009).

The debate today is developing, it is on this point, what companies can benefit this type of communication? The brands in their segments point to groups of people between 15 and 40 years, have a better chance, as this group is the most active (Malhotra, 2007). The challenge for companies is then in the user know how to seduce, surprise and link to the brand, without invading advertising and marketing actions predictable.
The key to generate relationship between brand and users is the compression of the latter looking on the net. A novel way of generating these relationships is through applications such as those where you can share any type of beverage such as a Starbucks coffee, or send gift a bag, clothing, shoes, candy, etc.(Johnson, and Onwuegbuzie, 2004). All these applications create awareness of the brand and link the user to them.
Despite the presence of brands in the networks, we must not forget that you can create "networks of complaints" since you cannot control what people say (Zou, and Cavusgil, 2002). This is why it is advisable to have a contingency plan for a possible negative situation.

To take into account
Companies should consider these points when wanting to venture into communication through social networks:
No building presence on a social network to "drive traffic" to the corporate website. That does not work.
Companies should use social media to build loyalty among existing customers, they will take care to recommend the company to their friends, and so companies will capture new customers.
A good way to start a network is letting employees represent the company. But be careful who they ask, should explain how it will work and the purpose of creating this network, because without this guidance can do both for good and for bad.
Add to network clients, this will allow them to get an initial critical mass. The friends of the company's customers are more like target sought, that the friends of the creative agency that handles advertising.
They must invest in quality content and exclusive to the web presence, but above all must build content with what they do on the network to tell in Advertising & PR conventional.
They must invest in features that improve the user experience of the network and allow other things to do besides reading mark what is published. Here is where the applications.
The most requested content in networks is the reality.
If you do not have the tools to better understand their customers, they should ask. And above all, listen to what customers communicate.
The business world is walking towards this type of community, as well as those that facilitate communication and information sharing peer to peer. What is important when handling this media is advertising alternatives work relationship and not interrupt activities that generate valuable content for both parties? This is a game of credibility and audience.

The preserve of luxury, the brand becomes an essential component of any business, regardless of its activity and size. It is now the major differentiator between companies in the same sector, and it is increasingly common for brands to be promoted at specific purchases. Each brand, cultivating its own personality and by adapting its commercial activities, marketing and communication, ensures success. It must be unique in the eyes of the consumer against other players in the market. It is therefore vital to the success of your marketing and communication strategies to pay attention to the management of brand. By then the tangible elements of the latter (logo, graphic elements ...) but also those that may appear harmless or without connection but that compose as well (production, marketing activities, sales and communication ...). These elements form the image that your audience and customers are your business, and therefore have a direct impact on your brand. If it is positive, it will stimulate demand and loyalty of customers, you open new markets and create a "favouritism" for your products in front of your competition. If it is negative, your product will suffer (sometimes to boycott), thus reducing your sales and market share over the long term.
It should also be noted that most companies and leaders in their market groups focused their strategy on the management of their brand. Whether Coca Cola, Apple, Disney and McDonald's, each was able to capitalize on its brand to retain its customers and win new market share. Recognition rate of the logo and graphic elements close to 100% in the world and several generations product associations to mark all as important, creating a culture and brand personality ... all elements of brand management have been exploited to enable the positions of perennial leaders.

Take the example of Apple. In 2010, the company realized a turnover of 65.23 billion dollars, with a portfolio of ... 4 products. But Apple's strategy is not limited to these products. She works his image, developing its positioning, and its philosophy and eventually builds its offer. This materializes in various forms: design, technology, interfaces and communities. The minimalist design, innovative, "high tech" and intuitive Apple products become symbols of the brand up to create a community of fans and users. Apple products even come to be purchased will only possession of the brand. We want to be part of the "Apple club." The product is no longer limited to its functionality and its quality, but its image. By owning an Apple product, you can access a "young and trendy" status, interested in technology and reaches an exclusive form. The object is therefore no longer limited to its features, but its only logo (Kothari, 1985).
An effectively managed brand can then be used to create a micro monopoly like Apple, or Nespresso example (Apple and iTunes, and Nespresso pods ...) and easily develop its loyal customers (including through a system of communities and clubs). The same communication of these companies is based around the spirit and culture of the brand: elegance and refinement of George Clooney for Nespresso and charisma and showmanship of Steve Jobs at Apple (Telegraph Website, 2009).

Similarly, some brands have suffered the consequences of mismanagement. This was the case of Nike and Mc Donald's, respectively of child labour in industries one, and the image of the other. The discovery of the working conditions in factories making Nike Southwest Asia and the age of some employees had aroused great indignity, both with consumers and government. The brand image had suffered and sales were considerably reduced. He also took several years to overcome Nike this unfortunate episode and recreate its brand around new axes (Telegraph Website, 2009). Similarly, McDonald's has long suffered from its poor image in terms of diet, health and working conditions. For several years, the brand could not bring the expected by the public and the crisis is rooted and diverse responses. Finally, McDonald's was able to provide appropriate responses and awareness through extensive institutional campaigns. Which were all focused on the McDonald's brand, its values ​​and personality: an environmentally friendly, commitment to quality, openness and warm character? By capitalizing on its brand, McDonald's has come out of the crisis. The change in color of the logo, for example, sealed and ecological commitment and quality (mainly food) brand, and responded to the concerns of some of its consumers.
It does not take much to think that a simple change of logo is the solution to organizational issues and positioning. GAP has unfortunately proved with its new logo rejected by his community of consumers, forcing the company to retain its former. This rejection is among other things due to poor communication with loyal consumers and mismanagement of brand communities (Telegraph Website, 2009).
Any company that leverages its brand must know always ensure consistency and to manage the communities that form around. It must first ensure that the culture and spirit brands are properly and fairly integrated, but also that the information circulating is correct and not in any way compromises the brand. Community status can be a significant force or weight (if too many "free" communities are not managed by the brand such as exchanging data or erroneous creating a negative rumour). We therefore monitor the information circulating, but it's also a great way to refine its position to study the consumer population, its habits ... to offer suitable and ensure success and sustainability (Ryals, 2005).
Similarly, the components of the brand must be consistent and correctly perceived by the public, in all markets where it operates. In the case of diversification, the brand will be well suited to their new activities and to new markets while maintaining its coherence and personality. This ensures reduced in communications or management, for example, costs as well as a better understanding of consumers who consume more accurately. The brand is the heart of your business, your daily business and is closely related to your financial and commercial situation. It is therefore important to ensure the consistency of the components of your brand with your business (Telegraph Website, 2009).

The quality of food products is a broad and complex that binds many aspects that have relative for producers, processors, traders and consumers. It is defined as the degree where the product conforms to standards determined which are set by experts and generally collects all dimensions of food: the organoleptic, nutritional, hygienic health, ethical, ecological, or any other aspect of interest (Calvo Dopico, 2004). But consumers lack the knowledge enough to assess or evaluate the same, generating an asymmetry in the market. Asymmetric information is an imperfection market: consumers do not have the same information that producers or traders, so they are in distinct disadvantage when it comes to making decisions. The literature of the information economy has provided the signals solution to this problem of information Asymmetric or imperfection in the market. In order to infer those properties and consequently infer the product quality treasures, the consumer uses signals or indicators. Thus, for amid signs or indicators, the plaintiffs can infer the level of product quality while perceiving that bidders care about the compliance quality. From this reference point, researchers marketers have tried to discover what signs can help consumers disclose information about the intrinsic determining product quality. The signals investigated have been the price, warranties, the mark manufacturer or distributor, the brand alliances; the umbrella brand, the origin or the designation of origin; advertising (Kirmani, 1990) and the design the package. Erdem and Swait (1998) highlight that the brand is presented as more reliable signal to consumers because which commits the bidder to fulfil promises quality. The logic behind the signalling properties of the brand name is credibility, or vulnerability of the mark to market sanctions. If it is important know the signal characteristics should have to improve that market or improve same, the more important to know what is the use as a sign that the brand provides the agent. To this we dedicate the following sections.

Retail products are a category that is often characterized by the absence of indicators objectively perceivable quality. Effectively market is difficult to recognize the intrinsic properties such as the variety of products. By Thus, the consumer needs some sign that allows one side, inferring that quality, and other hand, will ensure consistency in the parameters intrinsic unrecognizable even after having tried the product (Kathy, 2009). The brand, to be permanently subjected to monitoring and punishment by the market, could be an important signal to transmit in a credible way that information to consumers. Marketing literature speaks for side of the functional utility, ie guarantees which gives the brand and secondly, the symbolic utility referring to this term positive associations that the consumer perceived in the product from attribute the origin mark. These associations accrue positive perception of the quality Product and impact on evaluation each of its various attributes, the so-called "Halo effect". This hypothesis has been investigated by several authors, including highlighting Han (1989). The researcher explains that, for consumers who are not familiar with the product of the source image forms a halo effect upon which they infer its characteristics, while which, if known, the source image is a summary of product characteristics. In the same vein, several studies agree to point out that the origin of a product influences both as product evaluation in consumer preferences. Moreover, as indicated above, in addition to this symbolic utility, the brand is associated with a certain level of quality which is a guarantee for the consumer, also explained by the literature as useful functional. The perception of these guarantees is very important since, in the products attributes, form production, different varieties or the nutritional, that the consumer does not perceive even after consumption (Kathy, 2009). That higher value provided the brand is what literature recognizes as brand equity. Is this we conclude that the origin mark represents an indicator that can help consumers to infer a certain level of quality, significantly improves the perceived it through positive associations and guarantees the intrinsic attributes of products?

The concept of perceived risk was introduced first by Bauer (1960), who noted that consumer behavior involves risk in the sense that any action the same result no consequences be anticipated with certainty and some of which is likely to be unpleasant. From that, the risk is considered to own two basic components: subjective uncertainty (Probability of an undesirable outcome resulting an election) and adverse (Severity or importance of the losses). Subsequently, the different studies conducted in relation to perceived risk and consumer behavior try to understand how people make judgments value on the acceptability of risk. Bauer (1967) was also one of the first to propose objectivity is not risk it motivates consumer behavior, but subjective impressions of it. In this line developed several studies highlighted that can affect the risk subjective behavior of the agents, and if the perception affect behavior, then it could change this behavior by modifying perceived risk.
Moreover, it has been argued that there different risk factors, depending the nature of the product, which is greater complexity for subjective perceptions consumer and, similarly, power anticipate their future behavior purchase. In the area of ​​cattle, for example, consumers were concerned especially by physical risks, psychological and functional. The physical risk is related to perceive threats to beef posed to the health of consumers, while psychological risk that refers to concerns perceived in relation to their safety. Finally, we find the risk functional which is the risk arising from if the flesh reaches consumer expectations in terms nutrition, taste, and other physical properties thereof. Currently, no evidence risk as to the probability that by taking health product is severely affected, although there is in that the product not meet quality expectations, such that the product has not followed a quality control or offering a source that does not correspond with reality. In this context, the marks confer value added to the product as they help to mitigate the general risk, and in particular functional risk. Sensing that the product is labeled, the consumer feels more sure of your choice and perceived that, in theory, the mark may be indicator that products covered under she have a certain intrinsic properties which is further reduced variability (cattle are all of a given race, for example "Morucha" or that the mussel fresh is of Galician origin and further all tubers have a yield of between 20 and 30% of total weight). The marking so while the product has followed a certain control ensures intrinsic properties and variability reduces the risk perceived or functional perceived as being certified offering a certain constant level of quality.

As explained above, consumers lack sufficient knowledge to know or recognize a particular breed of cattle, one certain species of fish, or level of health. The consumer needs information Additional to perceive that quality. Furthermore, and because this varies by reasons already discussed, it is natural to think that if there is a mark on the product to determine a quality level and reduce this variability, the consumer will have to make less effort to recognize the product: its characteristics or properties and therefore its quality. Previous literature on brand equity believes that a well-known trademark implies a higher recall of the product positively affect the likelihood of purchase, especially when the consumer is difficulty choosing between products or evaluate intrinsic properties. Moreover, the brand can communicate certain determinants of product attributes, for what will brand recognition an association with the same attributes and product benefits treasures (Liz, 2010). Therefore, one can conclude that the brand will allow the agent significantly reduce search costs and information processing. The brand will, therefore a recall or recognition Product immediately, or, if applicable, of the attributes, features or benefits.

"A product is not sold unbranded". This phrase is the simplification of reality and as such simplification ignores nuances or specific situations. But it is based on a real and true. It is true that sell unbranded products, but it is also true that this only happens when the consumer has no other choice: if you find for sale products marked with other unbranded first choose those, and only buy these when they are finished or brands when reasons beyond their control, such as the price, do not allow the acquisition of those. So that may be an exaggeration but not incorrect to say that an unbranded product not sold, but what is a brand? A trademark is anything that consumers recognize as such. Is a product which has covered with a garment so attractive that makes the product desired, requested, required, with preference to others. In short, the brand is the name, term, symbol or design, or combination thereof, assigned to a product or a service, which is their live responsibly. This is who should make it known, identify and differentiate from the competition, must ensure quality and ensure continuous improvement.
The brand offers the product, along with their material reality, psychological reality, an image formed by a precise content, full of affection: security for some, prestige for others, quality ... Accordingly, then grab two realities differ main a) Material Reality: that is, the identity of the brand, a concept of issue (the name, the logo, its graphics, the reality itself ...), through which the issuer is and differentiate identify their products for market development. b) Psychological Reality: or what is the same, the brand image, a concept of reception, result of perception and decoding process of the receiver (the set of signs issued by the brand through product, corporate identity, packaging / packing and business communications) and personality of it. This psychological fact is that by which consumers identify and differentiate products. From this last definition is understandable that some brands have come to exceed the product they represent, giving them even reaching your name and generic defining and specific to a given company. The reason why this has come to pass is perhaps because brands are a guarantee and, above all, an emotion. The products are rational but Brands are emotional. Therefore, generic advertising may be rational but the brand, must appeal to emotion because the brand is just an idea in the mind of buyers. This idea leads us to the following question: "What is this product that others have not?". The answer is you have added values ​​that make up your brand and personality. The people choose to brands, as well as to friends, affinity. Hence the importance of studying the public, to find out his character and his way of being and, once known them, provide brands we want to endorse a personality in line with its potential user.

First, it is important to establish the difference between brand and product:
- Product: is what the manufactures or distributes advertiser and ultimately, what it offers to consumers.
- Brand: what consumers buy and goes far beyond the materiality of product.
Once differentiated both concepts, qualities or characteristics of the brand are determined by the following assumptions:
· The brand is a reputation. An unknown brand is a worthless brand the consumer will prefer those products known brands that guarantee safety and quality. The notoriety acquires advertising, necessarily supported in the product quality and exceeding test time:
Image of the brand must remain in the minds of consumers for a period undefined.
The brand is a reference value that identifies the product, allowing comparison of the same with other brands and free choice between them
The quality of a mark must be directly related to the quality of the product covered but not confused with it because the quality of a product cannot always visible to the naked view, sometimes, not even with its use. Instead, the brand is a recognized by the consumers, who granted to certain brands the adjective "good" and deny it to others.
This title is not given indiscriminately but, on the contrary, is based on evidence, one of the which, perhaps most important is the quality of the product. From that moment, the quality of the brand "life itself" and becomes separated from the product.
The brand is a signature, is the claim of paternity. It is an important symbol of security and responsibility
The brand is a sure progress. That is, obliges the manufacturer to improve relentlessly. Thus, it must analyze the market, not only in terms of value - price compared to the competition, but also to meet consumer desires, his nature, his character. The people choose brands affinity with his personality.
The brand has to be alive (born, grows, becomes, ill and dies), so you need when necessary, innovation (formal and / or conceptual) communication codes to build leadership more clearly differentiating from competition for tangible and intangible values. This is important to remember that brands can have modern image or outdated. This has little to do with the time of its release but, instead, depends largely on the fact that has failed to communicate that they are able to keep up.
After seeing all this, it is accepted as true that brands tend to be volatile but understood and explains that much money worth the effort to keep media should not haggling. This is the challenge: to keep brands alive long climb to get new positions and no shrink from the difficulties.

A brand is formed by the following elements:
Name or Phenotype: made by the brand that you can pronounce. Is identity verbal brand.
Logo: The graphical representation of the name, the national language with which it is written. Form part of the visual identity of the brand
Graphics: Those drawings, colours or representations not pronounceable. Complete the identity visual brand.
The totality of the mark, when the three elements consists of previously mentioned, it is also called Anagram.
You may perhaps brand name is the most important part of it since it is for that name by which it will ask the consumer at the time of purchase. For this reason, it is important to define the features that should have that name, (the more gather, the better):
Brevity: One or two words at most, one or two syllables, in short: visual and oral economy them easier to read and remember
Easy reading and pronunciation: For consumers to receive the impact of the announcement is necessary that the trademark is easy to read and pronounce one way. However, it is possible to achieve a notoriety even when the brand name is inconvenient for the consumer through large advertising investments "teaching."
· Euphony. Hearing the brand name should be pleasing to the ear of the consumer.
Memorization: The name of the brand has been able to memorize visually and / or audibly with great easily.
Association and / or evocation: The brand name should be associated by consumers with the type of corresponding product, evoking the product, the sound produced by the effect of their use, Product recalling positive feelings
But associate or evoke not be confused with describe as the brand does not describe the product but that distinguishes, therefore, the name should be a description of the product, since it would limit the brand in the future from modification or product development.
Distinction: The brand name should give the product distinction, differentiate from the competition. Also, one should avoid mimicry and fashionable names. Have shown that the strategy of differentiate a product is one that offers better results and benefits for companies. This is because differentiation allows the company to protect against competition. A company that successfully developed a differentiation strategy may impose a price their products higher than that of the competition. The differentiation strategy also allows achieving better levels of customer loyalty.
Adaptation: The name must be adapted to the needs of the packaging or labeling as well as any type of advertising medium.
 Protection by law: The name and logo have to be entered in the Register of Patents and Trademarks, Ministry of Industry, to prevent imitation or plagiarism that may confuse consumers.
International Level: That is, it is valid pronunciation (which includes the memory, evocation ...) for the various countries in which the product is to be sold

In general, the most appropriate is to use creative techniques such as literary rhetorical figures, the advertising techniques and techniques based on partnership.
Some of the most applied are:
Analogy: Based on the idea of ​​similarity, likeness or direct evocation about the product. The analogy is sought through questions such as: "what do you think?", "what do you remember?" "Where from?", "What is that?", "What's the use?"
Strangeness, contrast factors or originality and novelty. Is to use a suggestive phonetic entirely separate name of its direct characters, analog or descriptive
Evocation: Find a name that suggests emotional or psychological situations, a world of positive values​​and meanings related to the public of the mark   
Amplification: Consists superlative form assess the company, brand or product through evocative names a certain gigantism. All this in order to create a high-power and universality
Reliability: Applies to products that require this characteristics such as product pharmaceutical, dietary, food
Combinatorics: It's a free way to meet different concepts in order to enhance the effect of name. Combine well, fragments of names, letters, numbers, and onomatopoeia
Listing and Matrix: Use tables and matrices from letters of the alphabet
Brainstorming: Gathered a group of people and following rules should give most many ideas as possible related to the study (brand name) in question. They will all be collected, analyzed and then tabulated, eliminating long names, complicated, unpronounceable, banal or inadequate, manually or using computer programs. It reduces the number to three or four, which will be analyzed, depending on the aims and can check your registration.
 Choosing a brand name that meets all or most of the requirements is not an easy task, so companies have emerged that use specialized computer programs to find the right name. Moreover, given the large number of existing brands, may occur that the chosen name is already registered and cannot be used.

Consumers see the brand as an important part of the product and brand choice can add value. For example, most consumers see an unmarked bottle to be perceived as inferior, auque the scent is identical. Thus, decisions on the brand choice are an important part of product strategy. First, you need to familiarize with the language of brands. Here is the key definition. A brand is name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of all these that should identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers, to differentiate them from their competitors. A brand name is the part that can be pronounced. A trademark symbol is the part that can be recognized but not rule, as a symbol, design, color or font. It is for example the lion of the meter -goldwin-Mayer or the letter k Kodak red. The trademark is the party receiving legal protection: protects the exclusive right of the seller to use the brand name or sign. Copyright is the exclusive legal right reproduce, publish and sell the content and form of a literary, musical or artistic.

The first thing company must decide is whether the company wants to put a brand name on their products. This has taken so hard, that today almost nothing is sold without brand. The salt is sold Branded packages, oranges bear the stamp of the grower, the screw and the more common Turkish packaged with the label of the distributor and spark plugs automotive parts, tires, filters are named brand like fruits that have their brands petite bananas produce margins gain of 10-60% higher than the brand name products. But recently it has seen a return to consumer goods "no brand". These items "generic" are simply packaged without identifying the producer. The intention is to lower consumer costs saving in packaging and advertising. Although the popularity of these free brands reached its maximum at the beginning of 80, the discussion on whether to indicate the brand still stands.
The display helps the client brand in many ways. The name gives some indication of product quality. Those who always buy the same brand know that they will always get the same quality. It also increases the efficiency of the buyer: imagine a buyer who enters a store and finds thousands of products without label. Finally the brand attracts attention into new products that can be useful. The brand also provides certain advantages for the seller. The name allows the seller process orders and locates problems more easily. The brand name and brand registered provides legal protection for certain unique features that could copy their competitors. The brand allows the seller to attract a loyal and profitable set of buyers. It also helps to segment markets, so, Procter & Gamble can offer ten brands of detergents, not just a general product for all consumers. So the result is increased product variety and choice for consumers.

When companies decide to put a mark on a product the producer has three backup options. Product can be launched as a brand producer (also called national brand). Also the manufacturer can sell the product to an intermediary that puts a private brand (also called brand intermediary, private label or brand seller). Finally, the manufacturer may follow a mixed brand strategy, and sell part of their production with its own brand name and other with a private label.

Leading manufacturer’s brand their products have to decide between several options. There are at least four strategies brand name:
Individual brand name: This is the policy pursued by Procter & Gamble and general mills.
A general name for all products: It is the policy of Mount and General Electric
 Different names for all products. It's what makes sears
The official name of the company combined with product name.
What are the advantages of a single naming strategy? The most important is that the Company does not tie its own reputation to have the product acceptance. In case of failure not affect the good name of the company. Using the general name for all products also has certain advantages. Cost introduction will be smaller because it does not require a lot of publicity to create recognition and brand preference (Rust, Moorman, and Dickson, 2002). Besides sales will be high if the name of the manufacturer has good reputation. So soups made with Campbell brand name instantly recognizable. But when a company produces many different products, it's best to not use a general family name only. So swift & company uses different names for their hams (Premium) and fertilizers (vigorous). Companies often invent different names for different quality lines within the same product type. Finally, some manufacturers want to use the name of the company along with an individual name for each product. The gives the company its reputation, while the individual name distinguishes of other products of the same company. In this way, in the name of cap'n crunch Quaker Oats, takes advantage of the reputation that the company in breakfast cereals, while cap'n crunch that differentiates the product and gives relief.  

A brand extension strategy is any effort to use the name of a famous mark to launch a new or modified product. So, Procter & gamble ivory put the name of a dishwashing detergent, a liquid soap and shampoo, with excellent results; some also use the strength of its brand and released tide liquid detergent for washing clothes. Fruit of the loom 98% used his name recognition to launch new lines of socks and clothing inside fashion for men and for women. Brand extension saves the high cost involved for the manufacturer to promote new names and also create instant brand recognition for the new product. At the same time if the product fails, this can affect attitudes consumers to other products with the same brand name (Rust, Moorman, and Dickson, 2002).

In a multi-brand strategy the seller develops two or more brands within the same category product. The first to use this marketing category was p & g cheer when introduced as competition for and Tide famous brand. Although sales of the latter decreased slightly, those of both brands combined were higher. P & G detergents now produces ten brands. Manufacturers use multi-brand strategy for several reasons (Rust, Moorman, and Dickson, 2002). The first is that thus obtained more shelf space. The second is that few consumers are as loyal to a single brand not to try another the only way to capture these "unconscious" is to offer various brands.
Then, the creation of new brands creates a healthy competition within the organization itself Manufacturer. Thus, managers of different brands competing to outdo general motors’ each other. Finally, a multi-brand strategy positions the brands with different benefits and advantages, which each can attract your own followers.
For well positioned in the market this brand at first, it is possible that the company, having to reposition later. Perhaps a competitor has launched a brand positioned next to the own and has captured a portion of your market, or the desires of consumers have changed, so brand which has less demand. Marketers should consider repositioning the existing ones before introducing a new one. In this way, they can leverage the brand recognition and customer loyalty.
The repositioning may require a change in both the product and its image. Thus, P & G Bold detergent repositioned adding a softening ingredient. Arrow also added to its name a line of casual shirts before trying to change its image. Or a brand can reposition changing only the product image. Ivory soap, such was repositioned without no change of "baby soap" to "all-natural soap" for adults who want to have skin healthy looking. Similarly, repositioned kraft velveeta of "cooking cheese" to a sandwich cheese "tasty, natural and nutritious", the product does not change but use a different advertising kraft for transform the perception of consumers. When repositioning a brand, the manufacturer must have careful not to lose or confuse your customers loyal. When repositioned its cheese kraft care product the new position was consistent with the previous one. Thus, retained their customers loyal, the while attracting others.

Companies need to carefully choose the brand name. A good name can contribute greatly the success of the product. Almost all companies have developed a formal process of selection of brand name. It is a difficult task. It begins with a careful analysis of the product and its benefits, the target market and proposed marketing strategy. Among the desirable qualities of a brand name include:
It should be easy to pronounce, recognize and remember. Short names have advantages: tide, aim, puffs. But long are sometimes more effective: love my carpet cleaner carpet, better business bureau. It should be distinctive: Taurus, Kodak, Exxon It should be easy to translate into other languages ​​before spending a hundred million dollars to change your Exxon name, Standard Oil of New Jersey was approved in 54 languages ​​in more than 150 markets foreigners. He found that the name alluded to a motor encode drowned when pronounced in Japan. Must be able to register and protect legally. A brand name cannot be registered if it violates other brand names. Those who are merely descriptive or suggestive may be impossible to protect. Well, the record company brewer miller lite name for your beer with few calories and invested millions to set the name to its consumers. However, the court stated more lately that the terms "lite" and "light" were generic and common description when applied to the beer, and Miller could not use them exclusively.
Once you choose the brand name should be protected. Many companies try to build a identifying name that ends with the product category. Some of them have succeeded. However, the same can be successfully constitutes a threat to the right of the company over the name. Some who were originally trademarks like cellophane, aspirin, nylon, kerosene, "climber" and corn flakes are now common names that any marketer can use.

The concept that we have today of what constitutes a brand not changed substantially from that which our ancestors had. The finding more old which is no record of appearance of a brand is in the south of France in the Lascaux caves in which they find what is the drawing of a bison, which esteem that was made about 5,000 years BC., and this drawing a sign of belonging, as interpreted by historians and scientists. The Egyptians in the year 3500 years BC, gave different meanings to the use of the marks; the goldsmith’s jewellery designing various reasons such as prize military, to distinguish between the rank or political organizations, to mark their goods always with the king's name as firm as real consent and also gave the sense of origin of the items. As a curiosity, we mention that the first issue of which we have knowledge, occurred in England in 1618, when a fabric manufacturing High class sued a competitor that produced low-class fabric but used the mark the first, the case vs. Southern. How is considered the first case of litigation trademark infringement. From the 1880 worldwide were enacted on different kinds of laws Brand Features for the purpose of giving legal protection to consumers. At present, and as a result of globalization, the use of brands has significantly increased the need for companies to apart from the competition. Brands are a key component of any strategy trade, which in turn can become the most valuable asset of the company. A brand can be defined as a distinctive sign capable of identifying, products and / or services in the market, differentiating them from the competition, which ultimately contribute to project the image and reputation of the products to the consumers which helps to strengthen the customer base through the trust inspire. Brand protection through registration is fundamental because is a means of preventing unfair competitors taking advantage of a successful company by using similar distinctive signs for the purposes of marketing products or similar services that may create confusion or are of inferior quality and the same damage image. This is because the state grants the trademark owner, property on the trademark, obtaining an exclusive right to use and prevent their use against unauthorized third parties.
Among one of the most important rights and benefits that the trademark owner has; exercise are all legal defences for the unauthorized use by third, and the granting of use of the brand to others through contracts franchises or licenses, which can increase profits and expand brand. A new trend worldwide is the Trade Dress, can be translated literally as "Trade Dress", and is the image of an establishment, composed of combination of the colours and logos. To prevent third parties from good faith or copy the image of business premises either to exploit both the repute or to induce an erroneous association in the consumer public, and thus a clear cause unfair competition traders should protect through trademark registration.

A large number of companies still neglect a fundamental aspect: the brand of the company. The concerns regarding procedures, negotiations and on the day to day business, make see branding on many occasions, as unimportant and deferrable. The mark is used to distinguish goods or services like, helps customers to make purchasing decisions more quickly and likewise be sure that they will get a particular quality or performance when re-acquire the same product or service.
The company brand will be enriched over time along with all other factors accompanying the company as its marketing strategy, training, advertising, employee training, quality and price of our products or services, etc.. The brand is an asset of the company that eventually can be very valuable and may be the key to represent our company and engage our potential customers in the right way.
· What if I do not register a mark in my business?
Registering a trademark is not compulsory for the employer, but it may have some considerable risks:
- Anyone can use your brand as your own.
- Any person can take advantage of your prestige.
- Anyone could register your brand and deprive you of it.
- We may be unduly penalized if they use a mark already registered
It's easy to register a trademark?
We must first distinguish between trademark and trade name. While it may register both, the distinction is that the former refers to products or services, while the second identifies the company. It is important to note that the trade name may agree or disagree with the corporate name of an entity. Society may have a company name and then put a different as a trade name. It is also possible that a same company use different trade names, each one targeting a sector of different activity, or different brands to differentiate products. There is a complex task given the serious problems we can avoid.

People have to distinguish two types of costs. On one side is that of the application it, in which the rate is fixed by the Patent is around 140 Euros. If companies choose to register more than one class of activity, for the second and later the rate is 90 Euros. Designated trademarks and trade names are also a cost of renewal every ten years, with 160 Euros for the first class of protected activity and 108 for later if any. The entrepreneur has to decide whether to protect its distinctive signs in the national or for example wants to extend protection to European level. It is possible to request a Community trade mark with effect in all EU countries, although rates are logically high, amounting to 1,000 Euros to 1,500 Euros application and for renewal. In this case, the body that regulates these protections is the OHIM, Office for Harmonization in the Market.

The registration of a trademark is granted for 10 years from the filing of the application and may renew indefinitely for periods of 10 years, being the owner of the mark required.
Brands can be cancelled by judgment declaring that the registration of the trademark is invalid, expiration of the term for which they were granted without renewal, resignation of the incumbent, non-payment of the fee or the failure to use.

Peter Drucker, a renowned specialist Management said that "business business has two functions major: marketing and innovation. Both activities occur results, the rest does not lead that cost ". these two orient the basic functions wish fundamental to any business make profits in the process of product and quality services to consumers. Intellectual Property plays a role in both these functions and brands, in particular that play a crucial role in the process marketing. Any product on the market is facing competitive products which often are almost identical, similar or good products substitution. Meet expectations consumer or exceed their expectations is a task difficult, especially when tastes and preferences change constantly in a competitive market where many products Similar meet the same needs. Only companies that can meet these demands can expect to develop and maintain a loyal customer base.

To gain the confidence and loyalty with respect to its products, company must develop and maintain identity, image or a clean reputation. This is only then it is able to distinguish and differentiate their products from those of its competitors. At the same time, it must also provide a mechanism to make the connection between the provider of a product and trust and reputation are valuable assets of the company. The companies manage generally the result through a distinctive trade name and one or more brands. These brands play a vital role in marketing strategy differentiating products from those competitors and establishing a positive relationship (and often emotional) to longer term with consumers with an image or reputation constantly maintained. Each company must encourage the consumers to spend quickly knowledge brand to a preference for the mark, to the recognition brand, and finally the emphasis on brand stage which the consumer rejects any substitute and even agrees to pay a higher price for the product of the desired mark.
Popular terms used in marketing jargon, ie "brand" or "trademark" are interchangeable with the term "trademark factory "as used in legal field of intellectual property. Of course, a brand product or corporate brand is a much broader concept a single trademark, as well as the creation of a mark solid and brand equity a business is a challenge greater magnitude than the choice recording or maintenance one or more trademarks. The strong brands and successful development of a company generally refer to successes in terms of participation sharing market sales, margins, loyalty and awareness on the market. However, the greatest success of brand is also evaluated based the overall interest of the product which returns this brand has for the consumer.

Companies often use a portfolio of brands to diversify their marketing strategy to meet the needs of different target groups in one or more countries. Building an image strong brand is not easy. The use of trademarks for effective marketing of products requires an excellent knowledge trademark law and practice in this area at national and international (it is then necessary to seek advice a professional because it is a specialized activity). However, some fundamentals should be kept in mind during the process to create a good brand factory. Brands should:
Be distinctive by nature
Be easy to remember and pronounce,
Correspond to the product or the image of the company,
Being subject to any restriction legal and
Have a positive connotation
A trademark or trade mark can be a word, a letter, symbol (logo), a number, color, shape, or, if the law the country allows, sound or smell, or a combination of several elements.

Brand value varies from sector of the economy to another and within the same sector. According to a recent survey of companies in some developed countries, mark represents just over 10% of the total value company in the sector industrial, 40% in the financial services industry and Automotive and 70 to 90% the food industry and luxury items. In absolute terms, the value of a brand (excluding the value of its other intellectual property and intangible assets) may reach a phenomenal amount. The results of the annual survey Interbrand 2001 brands worlds most efficient, which shown in the box below clearly illustrate this hypothesis. As such, these brands or trademarks are valuable assets that require careful management care, maintenance and protection, under penalty of losing their value to be stolen or simply destroyed or lost.

An important step towards remove unnecessary costs and reduce the risk is to register the mark quickly so it is legally protected and that third parties may not interfere. This is often done well before attempting the marketing new product to avoid incurring expenses advertising and other activities promotional and discover then the trade name is not available. Some countries offer protection unregistered trademarks, but mostly protection is subject to the condition recording. many countries allow registration without prior use, but mark may be cancelled if, during a period of time it is not used on the market report with the product. It is easier easy solve the problem voluntary parasitism known the name of trademark infringement, and gray market goods (designated imports under the name parallel) when the brand was validly registered. Companies advised act actively to understand employees, vendors, distributors, editors Newspapers, publishers of encyclopaedias and the public that their brand refers to only their products and therefore it should be used wisely. There is another important measure that companies must take and that is to examine each year their brand portfolio, to see if the appropriate steps were made to 1) Register all brands that are used or proposed for use domestic markets or export, 2) register licensing brand if trademark law requires it; 3) adequately control the quality of the product offered by the licensee brand or franchisee and 4) renew mark registrations.


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