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June 8, 2014

Environmental Issues

Introduction
Among a lot of natural resources, environment is considered as the most significant and most consumed resource. Although, it is considered as the basic requirement for the human survival but nowadays there is scarcity of an appropriate environment. Therefore, in today’s era there are a lot of issues and concerns related to environment which are faced by the whole globe. These include natural calamities, drought, floods, famines etc.
            In this essay after discussing about the environment in general, now few of the major environment issues will be discussed and then one of the most significant issues will be discussed in detail along with its cause, history and solution. It will also present the origin and current condition of the problem, the solution of the problem along with its pros and cons of the solutions. This essay will be concluding through re-writing the most significant environment issue and providing final thoughts on the discussed environment issue.

Global Warming and Climate Change
            One of the most significant global environmental issues is global warming and climate change.  Whenever this vital environmental issue is discussed both the natural and human causes are discussed simultaneously to understand this issue deeply. In one of the articles written by Nina Chastney (2012), stated that if there would be no control on the greenhouse gas emissions then till 2100 the temperature of the world will rise by six degree Celsius. As this indicates that the cause of global warming is the rise in the temperature and the cause for the rise is the human activities.
            The global dimming and the greenhouse effects are the terms which are more commonly used while discussing about the global warming. Air pollutants from the fossil fuel forms the clouds which create hindrances in between the sun and the earth and the sunlight and could not reach the earth thus having an impact on providing the required warmth to the earth. This global dimming could lead to some of the destructions like drought, one of the example is the drought in Ethiopia during 1970s and 80s where a lot of people were dead because the warmth of the sun did not reach to the northern hemisphere oceans thus rain was not formed and causing this destruction. Additionally, greenhouse gases are also discussed whenever and wherever the global warming is discussed. Greenhouse gases- a mixture of six main gases along with water vapors, these include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), plus three fluorinated industrial gases: hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). These gases exist naturally and assist in trapping the heat and if the concentration of these gases changes in the atmosphere then there would be disturbances in the normal temperature of the earth causing a lot of problems. If the concentration of these gases is weaker then the earth temperature would be colder and if the concentration is stronger then, it would be much more warmer which did not allow human, animals and plants to exist and survive on earth. Additionally, there are numerous health related issues due to global dimming and greenhouse effect; these include smog, respiratory problems and acid rain.
Solutions
            As the global warming and climatic changes have an on the whole globe; therefore, people from all over the world come to one consensus that efforts should be made in accordance to save the environment from the hazardous of global dimming and greenhouse gas emission. In this regard efforts were started to be made: like to evaluate the global warming knowledge,  in the year 1988 with the collaboration of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)  was formulated. The report presented by IPCC in the year 1990 presented that human factor is the most significant cause of climate change. This report became the basis for other efforts made in this regard like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) formulated an international convention for climate change. The fact that almost all the countries of the world are interested in overcoming such issue could be evident that more than 150 countries’ representatives signed this convention and attended Rio Earth Summit in the year 1992. Although this convention was signed in the year 1992 but it came into effect in the year 1994, this also lead to Kyoto Protocol which was initiated in the year 1995 and come into effect in the year 1997, the significant features of this protocol includes:
·         The world’s leading economies should be provided greenhouse-gas emission mandatory target
·         In order to accomplish their targets member countries are provided flexibility
·         There is a variation in the provision of commitment for different countries.

Along with the above mentioned convention and protocol, there were other treaties and conventions too on regional basis to overcome or minimize this issue. But some of the super power countries criticize with these treaties as these could have an impact on its business and economy. But looking at the worst conditions of the whole globe these businesses and super power countries are also trying to following the rules and regulations provided by these treaties and convention in order to generate a healthy and safe environment for our future generation.
            Moreover, in the recent advanced technological world such solutions of the problems are welcome which perform dual tasks, as on one hand provide the solution for the existing problem and on the other hand could also assist the society to promote and develop under-privilege people. Among such strategies there is one which assists in providing the strategies to control the greenhouse gases emission into the environment. There is one of the organizations Carbon Offsets to Alleviate Poverty COTAP which build connection in between the carbon emission and the growth of forestry which could assist in providing the jobs to jobless people and improve their standard of living.
            This is one of the facts that just the countries are not responsible for promoting global warming but each and every individual also responsible for this hazardous environment. Therefore, it is also duty of each and every individual to participate in the strategies suggested to overcome or minimize this significant environmental issue of global warning and climatic change. These individual measures include utilization of fuel effective vehicles and protecting forests are the most significant measures earlier also presented to minimize the global warming effect.
Conclusion
            Global warming and climatic change are considered as the vital environmental issues because these have overwhelming and daunting impact. Here the question arises that although, this issue has covered all the aspects of life and having an impact on the whole globe but still how it could be dealt by an individual or any single country? One of the ecologists Stephen Pacala and Physicist Robert Socolow suggested few ways through which this harmful environmental issue could be overcome or minimized. From these strategies changing the life style each and every individual could assist in this powerful cause. Along with this the countries have also signed different treaties, conventions and protocols which could lead the whole world towards working for the same cause of minimizing this most significant environmental issue.
References
Chestney, N. (2012). Global warming close to becoming irreversible. Retrieved March 18, 2013 from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=global-warming-close-to-becoming-ir&print=true
Global warming: A natural occurrence. (http://qualimetrics.com/). Retrieved March 18, 2013 from http://qualimetrics.com/global-warming-a-natural-occurrence/
Anup, S. (2013). Climate Change and Global Warming. Retrieved March 18, 2013 from http://www.globalissues.org/issue/178/climate-change-and-global-warming
Biello, D. 10 Solutions for Climate Change. Retrieved March 18, 2013 from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=10-solutions-for-climate-change


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