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June 25, 2014

Impact of Immigration: A Historical Perspective


About 8 million people and immigrants dislocated due to the beginning of war in the Western engaged regions and a number of 3.6 million people from eastern sector of Germany engaged by Soviets from 1945 to 1949. The huge colonization movements witnessed by Federal Republic of Germany and German Democratic Republic, subsequently. Almost half a million aliens were settling in the Federal Republic of Germany by 1950, which is one percent of the whole inhabitants. Afterwards, settlers arrived in different periods:
  • Since 1955 to 1973, the conscription of alien labor, recognized by “Guest Workers” (Gastarbeiter) animate in Germany, has increased the figure up to 4 million. The first and foremost alien workers were hired from Tunisia, Portugal,   Morocco, Greece, Italy, Turkey, Yugoslavia and Spain, which continued till 1973.
  • From 1973 to 1985, major migration occurred by the dependents of alien German residents and the figure rose to 4.4 million in 1985.

After the plummet of iron curtain in late 1980s, other types of migration initiated:
  • Asylum Seekers – About 57,000 asylum applications were submitted in 1987, it increased by the following years and in 1992 the number of applications reached to 438,000. Then Germany modified the asylum law and restricts these numbers to 100,000 per annum in 1998.
  • Ethnic German Émigrés: From 1945-50, more than 12 million banished and other people absorbed by Germany. About 36,000 average German origin expellees, yearly, were relocated in Federal Republic in the period of 1950-84.
This colonization began protuberance in the period of 1987-88; about 203,000 ethnic Germans approaching to Germany and this figure went up about 400,000 in 1990. From Soviet Union sector, Germany engrossed 2.7 million people. In early 2000, this statistics have been lowered by less than 100,000 yearly and favorably regain the level of 1984.
Statistics have depicted that, by 1996, the figure extended to 7.3 million as a consequence of continuous family reunion and periodical migration. “It is safe to assume that nearly one in every five persons living in Germany has an immigrant back ground”.
The up surged labor demand in West Germany, occurred by the pecuniary boom after the World War II, and is known as “Economic Miracle”.


Concepts of Immigration Plan
Two Existing well recognized concepts on Immigration procedures   - The state recognition and the pecuniary method – are evaluated while both methods observe immigration procedure as a consequence of historical or economic determinants. Both methods highlight politics as a vital issue motivating immigration policies. As a result, the methods build up a new form that emphasize that the achievement of procedure initiatives is mainly reliant on communal performers and the existence of political gateway formations and indicative challenging packages.
Monetary and Cultural Concepts
Colonization strategies of specific Western States cultural values or ‘State Recognition’ arguments are mostly employing as unofficial enlightenment for the conflict among countries (Meissner 1992; Munz 2001). The hypothetical tactic subsequent to these urging render the case, that “the unique history of each country, its conceptions of citizenship and nationality, as well as debates over national identity and social conflicts within it, shape its migration policies” (Meyers 2000:1251). It employs a past method and therefore shows down the significance or “conditional” factors. The very momentous in this context is most likely the effort by Rogers Brubaker on conceptions of citizenship in France and Germany. He contends “national welfare in an expensive or limiting citizenry is not immediately given by pecuniary, demographic, or military considerations. Rather, judgments of what is in the interest of the state are mediated by self-understandings, by cultural idioms, by ways of thinking and talking about nationhood” (Brubaker 1992: 16).
Miriam Feldblum therefore, censures the approach in her study of French Policy: “Such a framework tends to reify various historical and ideological strands into more or less static national models to be juxtaposed against other national models. To look primarily at national traditions and models to explain current reform outcomes either lays the ground work for a series of national exceptions – as in French exceptionalism, German exceptionalism and American exceptionalism – or leaves many questions unanswered about the dynamic character and direction of the reforms” (Feldblum 1999: 7-8).
Culture and Values of Foreigners
Millions of foreigners, settled in Germany brought their own cultural heritage and values in the Germany and they are still living as a separate entity in the Germany.
The family structure has a prime importance in foreign culture. Usually a household centered on a nucleus of a family but sometimes some offshoots are also there. Although many households lives in a nuclear family structure but they are always ready to help other family members and friends in the hour of need.
The values and norms of Foreign German residents were consist of their religion, which is Catholic, and their denizen customs and myths. In the service and spiritual revelries all the family, friends, neighbors and close relatives congregate to commemorate, to eat together and to rejoice. Therefore the lives, beliefs, customs, morals and ethos of Alien German Citizens were based on their spirituality and so church was the core element of their lives.
Regardless of Germany’s chronicle with concern to minorities, the realm is deficient in a state opposed to inequity laws. Hitherto, the German financial system depends on constant flow of migrant from Eastern Europe, Turkey, former Republic of Yugoslavia and somewhere else to sate various occupations with no extra erudition. Gerhard Schroeder, Chancellor, has enthused controversy by showing a yearning to revamp the country’s citizenship rules to convenient for foreign born Germans to befit German citizens. It gave the desired number of labor to German government and a large number of employments to the people of Non European which is economically beneficial for Non European government.
German government response to Living conditions of minorities:
German government has always tried their level best to provide best and equal opportunities to all their citizens. Numerical goals force employers to consider workers from the entire spectrum of the labor force, more effectively tapping German potential talent. Besides, we do not have objective or foolproof means to determine which applicant will perform best once hired. Allowing minorities a few points on entrance exams and civil service tests, for example, does not mean we are not getting the best person for the job.
Prejudice persists, and thus the leveling influence of assenting action is still required. Any consideration of fairness cannot ignore the continuing consequences of past discrimination. Many members of minority groups still suffer disadvantages in socialization patterns, education success, and self-esteem that stem from previous injuries. Until these effects have been eradicated, true equity cannot be achieved. Furthermore, for many reasons the white male monopoly is unlikely to even consider extending opportunities to minorities unless forced to do so.



Conclusion:
Prejudice is basically an internal phenomenon that entails the act of prejudging, or the making of judgments based on insufficient evidence. According to most studies, prejudice toward other human beings is not an inborn but a learned response.  In short, we learn from others to use the mental shortcut of prejudice.  Because ethical standards are not codified, some problems always occur. An ethical dilemma arises in situations when each alternative choice or behavior is undesirable because of potentially negative ethical consequences. Right or wrong cannot be clearly identified.
After all the above discussion, it can easily be said that life is not so easy in the so-called Land of opportunities. German society assumes the wrong meaning of progress. In order to achieve their “Fantasy”, Germans become materialistic, pleasure seeking and shallow people without emotions and soul. They did not treat the immigrants as they deserve. They had used them when they are in desperate need of manpower but afterwards turned its back from them.
People from the entire third world countries still living in the quest of “Fantasy” and consider that there are several benefits of being a German citizen, but the condition of German immigrants depicts that life is harder and much more difficult for them in Germany than the life in their native countries.





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