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June 25, 2014

Importance of Brand in Retail Industry of UK

The objective quality of the product can be defined as excellence and technical superiority of a product, which can be assessed, fixed and evaluated by an expert. The product must be produced from according to technical specifications. Degree in which the product is suited to these specifications determines technical quality (Voss, and Voss, 2000). This variable is gradually gaining a large importance in food markets due to higher demand requirements. However, consumers lack the knowledge enough to assess the microbiological properties of a food, its nutritional content or their physicochemical properties, so they turn to indicators or signals that will allow it to infer quality. Theoretically they use two types of indicators or information signals: intrinsic-features or essential product attributes, and extrinsic-those attributes or indicators who do not keep a close relationship with the same. Through these signals or indicators plaintiffs can infer the level of quality products while perceiving that bidders are concerned about compliance quality of their promises (Micael, 2009).
There are, however, many products perishable agricultural food not possess any identification or signal that allows Consumer infer the quality or at least recognize some of their intrinsic properties relevant. This deficit indicator in perishable food products and the biggest concern consumers about the quality of these is what has led people to analyze the importance of the brand, as a sign quality has on the marketing of retail products (Voss, and Voss, 2000).
Literature finds that among the most important indicators extrinsic include: the brand, labeling, origin, the price, warranties and advertising. Erdem and Swait (1998) conclude that the signal relevant is the brand. Furthermore, the teacher Aaker (2003), to examine the sources of value brand, concludes that people must investigate product attributes are those that allow identify and distinguish an offer from another and, at the same time intrinsic endow thereto. These attributes constitute sources brand value. Previous literature value brand notes that the designation of origin (D O)contributes greatly to the creation of value brand and that food products unmarked, it may be considered same as a brand can to fulfil essential functions of Brand: identification sign since the name source allows immediate recognition or recall of the product, the function sign up or quality assurance constant since the producer responsibility to offer the consumer a specific level certified quality constant, the function allow customization as agents express their personality through the choices effecting purchase, that is, makes consumers identify with a particular territory or area and origin, and finally, satisfaction derived function of familiarity of agents with the brand after years purchase and consumption, ie the tradition is the one that assures consumers satisfaction constant. Furthermore, the D O play a differentiating role between the set of alternatives, as that the origin is the attribute that allows consumers easily perceive or distinguish a particular other alternative competing her. The D O be presented as an umbrella brand both for those producers who do not have a sufficient amount of resources finances to create a brand, and for private label those who have little or limited notoriety (Voss, and Voss, 2000). Due to the existence of large amount of perishable goods without brand, and even without other information or indicators allow them to infer the quality or property organoleptic assess whether the creation of the brand to add value to the product. To answer this question we document divided into four parts. Firstly, explain the theoretical framework of the signalling and brand value and, from it, considering how to develop hypotheses the creation of a brand for perishable products used to add value to the consumer. Then explain the methodology and collection data, to proceed with the analysis and discussion results.

Aim of this research is to observe importance of brand in marketing of retail industry of UK: Case study of a Sainsbury.

·         To identify the features and importance of brand
·         To recognise the impact of brand on retail marketing
·         To understand importance of brand on marketing of Sainsbury

What are the features and importance of brand?
What is the impact of brand on retail marketing?
What is the importance of brand on marketing of Sainsbury?

This study pursues the standard structure and relates the Harvard citation style.
Section one describes the issue to be assessed various backdrop data and shows conditions to the study.
Section Two will describe an evaluation of the literature pertaining to the issue.
Section Three will describe the methodology implemented in this study. It defines the strategy of the research, performed research method and the approaches of data compilation used.
Section Four will describe the result from the methodology and discussion on the results.
Section Five will describe the conclusion and recommendations about this research.

J Sainsbury plc was founded in 1869 and today operates a total of 934 stores comprising 557 supermarkets and 377 convenience stores (Sainsbury, 2011). Sainsbury PLC is one of the top four UK retail grocery organisations in the UK. It was market leader for long time and with ups and downs it has recently shown positive results securing over 16% market share (Creve, 2011). More than 150,000 people are employed at Sainsbury who are required to be flexible and committed in order to deliver great service (Sainsbury’s, 2012).
The two branches of Sainsbury’s that have been selected for this case study are the Marble Arch and Lee Green branches. A brief overview of the two stores is presented below:
The Marble Arch branch is a local store of Sainsbury’s and is located at local Marble Arch Tower, 55 Bryanston Street London. Osama Noor is the current store manager there (Sainsbury’s, 2012). The Lee Green branch is a superstore and is located at 144 Burnt Ash Road, London. Adam Bye is the current store manager here and with facilities like 336 parking spaces, 3 ATM, Toilets, Baby change facilities and hearing aid loops (Sainsbury’s, 2012).
At the Marble Arch branch the total number of employees of this local store is around 22. The employees at this local store are a mix of men and women and around 45 percent of total employees are not UK nationals. The total number of employees of the Lee Green branch is around 250. The employees at this local store are also a mix of men and women (mostly women) and around 25 percent of total employees are not UK nationals. The graph chart presented ahead below also elaborates on the same points (Sainsbury’s, 2012).
Diversified work force at the two selected stores

Sainsbury claim a commitment to employees and have invested a great deal in re-vamping their recruitment, selection and performance management policies and procedures. Sainsbury has secured the Gold award from Investors in People and seek a committed and motivated workforce. This they claim is done through investment in the workforce and they publicise the company as a ‘great place to work’ (J Sainsbury’s plc, 2012). The HR director of Sainsbury’s Imelda Walsh contended that “performance appraisal is emended within the company and is not being seen as a thing to be carried out in isolation” and she also said “in old days people were not informed why certain things were being done but at Sainsbury’s we provide them with feedback”. At Sainsbury’s the focus is very much on the top leaders, the supermarket managers that are around 1000 in numbers and they are being trained to put behaviours in practice and get feedback on the performance appraisal systems being employed at company stores (personnel today, 2010).
Thus this research helps Sainsbury’s management to have a look into their performance appraisal system from employee perspective and thus evaluate as to whether the employees are satisfied with this system and whether they perceive it to be fair. Jonathan (2002) suggests that every business organisations need to continuously monitor the implemented performance appraisal system and its effectiveness. In similar lines it is critical to Sainsbury’s to keep on evaluating the adopted performance appraisal practices and their effectiveness and this study is a step in this direction. In light of the claims made by the HR manager of Sainsbury’s this study investigate as to whatever is being claimed is resulting in employee satisfaction with the company’s performance appraisal system.

2.3.1 The New Role of Retail Distribution
The restructuring in a global context is the phase latest period of half a century of changes produced in the commercial distribution sector in Europe, which comprises three main phases. The first phase occurred in the years after 1945, a period in which the priority for the sector distribution was rebuilding its physical and organizational structures. There strong U.S. influence on innovations in management, for example with the introduction of self in the food sector. Several U.S. companies, such as JC Penny, entered Europe. The city centre of much Northern Europe was rebuilt and trade was used as a catalyst for architectural recovery cities such as Coventry, Exeter, Cologne and Berlin West. Overall, consumers, after several years’ shortages, wanted more products and retailers provided additional commercial space to meet these needs, but the low income growth of citizens constituted a limitation for growth of retailers. However, in UK the situation was quite different, mainly as result of political circumstances that kept the structure of the retail sector at a subsistence level until late sixties. They began to take actions to promote self-promoted especially government-but still for much of this phase remained traditional structures standing. In fact, in the early seventies, traditional stores accounted for 71 100 food sales and 95 100 sales non-food (Baker and Sinkula, 1999).
The expansion of the 'common market' in Western Europe and the subsequent development of a European Union more integrated are the second phase (Winsted, 2000). In northern Europe, this phase occurred in the seventies, while in UK was delayed a few years since the first phase was not yet finished. Retail markets Europe began to consolidate, but at different times, and there was a substantial growth of a type different from before. The marketing accepted as a key activity for commercial distribution and retailers incorporated it into their activities. We designed different types of establishment’s commercial needs of consumers. As developed segmentation markets, explored a variety of new retail formats. For example, during the decade of seventies and early eighties was developed in various sectors supermarkets on one level in self, often located in suburbs or on the outskirts of cities, hypermarkets especially for products of all type and specialized superstores in food, DIY, toys, appliances, furniture, etc. Again, going to UK lagging behind the countries of northern Europe, and consolidated growth of hypermarkets and other large areas occurred later, in the mid the eighties. During this second phase, consumers wanted different products and better quality, rather simply more products. There was also a demand segment with different needs and constraints requiring new types of business environments.
The third phase, which is the period of exchange at present, is characterized by restructuring distribution, with the emergence of new roles and functions. The convergence of information technology and communication, the use of new materials and use of other technology applications such as radio frequency identification in the value chain have strengthened the position of the retail sector in the economy. Economies of scale retail companies, associated with global supplies and the presence of stores around the world, have led some retailers have become the largest companies in Europe. In 2004, Metro, Carrefour and Tesco were among the 20 largest companies in terms of market capitalization in Germany, France and the UK, respectively. The Retailers have become key elements of the composition of the European economies. Consumers want low prices and high quality of service, and quality is now considered broader than simply a tangible appearance of a product (Margaret, 2004). Thus, Zara offers low prices and high quality service by selling fashionable clothes and innovative products in an attractive business while Mercadona offers its own version of the concept of always low prices, combining low prices with quality service, through comfort, high inventory availability, innovation in their own brands and efficient systems customer relationship. The major European retailers by volume Sales in 2003, Carrefour, Metro, Tesco, Rewe and Royal Ahold, listed in the top ten retailers the world. Wal-Mart and Costco, which are in the list, but are based outside of Europe, also have stores here. European retailers have expanded beyond Europe. Thus, in 2003, Carrefour had facilities in 31 countries and is supplied in over 55 countries, and Metro was present in 28 countries (Ryals, 2005).
Tesco, with stores in 13 countries, is less international operational level, but it is equally as their sources of supply. The large scale and international activity of these retailers have many consequences. The options available to consumers are changing and, therefore, the election processes holding consumers are also evolving. These changes are affecting the buying habits of the consumers. This is one of many potential examples of the more active role currently played by the retailers in the global economy. In establishing the new distinctive role of the distribution, the major companies have developed a specific European model of distribution and trade. This model Emerging Europe is different from American. This is an international model, not national; for example, just compare Metro, Carrefour and Tesco with Kroger and Target. Central Europe's openness to investment by part of Western European retailers constituted a stimulus for this international vision. Moreover, the European model is structured around a chain of integrated demand, not a chain supply. And its central element is innovation to the market, rejecting the stronger position imitation. This commercial distribution is often reflected in macroeconomic statistics. For example, in 2005 in the British economy expected that the value added generated by the sectors commercial is greater than that generated by the industry.
The difference between these two sectors has been declining since the early nineties, when the contribution to value added industry was almost double the trade. In the United Kingdom, the substantial increase in labour productivity in trade was reflected in a large increase in the value added, with a much smaller increase in the creation employment (Zimmer, 1994). This pattern is repeated in much of Europe, and although trade continues be a sector with a relatively productive low, the growth rate of the same has accelerated in recent years. When comparing commercial sectors United Kingdom, it is clear that in the UK the sector is more developed, although growth has been greater in UK in recent years. In UK, the contribution of trade to GNP has increased, reaching 10 per 100 in 2002. The trade gave employment to 2.7 million people in 2002, which shows the function social business activities have on the economy. At the qualitative level, the sector employs increasingly more educated workers and has a greater number of employees, and the percentage of temporary contracts compared to fixed is increasing.

2.3.2. The Determinants of Changes in the Retail Sector
The reasons for structural adjustments in the current phase of major changes in the European retail sector can be understood as a process in which environmental changes are related to the responses of managers of retail companies. Given distribution is an activity which relates to the consumer goods and services, its operations taking place in local markets. As a result, many of the management decisions are a response to both the local buying habits of consumers and local culture in demand (Lynn, 2004). In Europe, these local cultures are subject to considerable social, economic, political and technological. This dynamic environment requires local cultural responses from retailers, which for if successful, must adjust their operations as possible to the needs of consumers. These answers are based on the strategies of retailers, which run through the formats and formulas that creates the retailer. By creating these formats and formulas, the retailer builds relationships with other groups, such as suppliers, financial groups, consumers, and etcetera. In the current context of activity in Europe, the four elements of the retail sector: Cultures, strategies, formats and formulas, and relationships-are undergoing substantial changes as they interact (Zimmer, 1994). Changes in these attributes are responsible for the sector is evolving distribution the way it is making. In order to understand the factors causing the changes in the retail sector is useful to examine some key examples of changes in each of these four elements.

Changes in European consumer culture produced since 1989 have been considerable. The emergence of market economies in Central Europe led to widespread privatization of the sector commercial distribution in this part of Europe and the subsequent integration of these countries into the European Union. But one aspect that has perhaps even more important in terms of consumer culture has been a growing demand for products and services in the former communist countries (Lynn, 2004). The steady increases purchasing power of the population after the initial periods of high inflation have meant that, from the mid-nineties, consumers want to have access to a wider range of value combinations in stores. By example, in the textile sector, different markets quickly emerged as clothes, work clothes, designer clothing, discount clothing, etc., similar to those who had developed more gradually, in Western Europe. Following the full integration of these countries into the European Community in May 2004, these habits will develop more quickly, leaving behind habits purchase more traditional. In many cases, retailers in the nineties are what have shaped consumer habits of Central European countries and those who have shaped these habits in the image of Europe West, rather than Americans. In much of Western Europe, habits trends show consumers apparently contradictory towards standardization and fragmentation, making it difficult to speak of a single European consumer. Fragmented demand is evident in many ways, the emergence increasingly smaller segments consumer with specific patterns of demand. Consumers have translated their ideas and interests in demands goods and services, in the sense that there are groups with different values, as environmentalists, vegetarians, sport addicts, and so on (Zimmer, 1994).
In addition to these groups, are established groups for longer depending on the age, the level education, income, and so on. Moreover, there is increasing fragmentation associated with ethnicity. In UK, the immigrant population already accounts 7 by 100 of the total population. Their demand for unusual foods in the diet is so great which, for example, 30 100 of the products sold goes to the immigrant population, and even in this market Halal meat is produced. Immigrants make their purchases especially discount stores, especially these days, although its favourite store is Sainsbury. Means specialized communication have encouraged this fragmentation. Fragmentation is even greater because to consumer demands vary in a temporal dimension: by time of day or day of the week. They can no longer consider the consumer as a single person, but must be seen as many "people" different.
In apparent contradiction to this fragmentation, Europeanization exists some aspects of consumer demand. Due to the widespread and faster access to information via satellite communications, the rapid spread of fashion, especially in clothing and music, have been generated European demand patterns. Travel through Europe especially for leisure and tourism, also have helped the spread of cultures, especially food, so that consumers in northern Europe are familiar with southern food, and vice versa. The availability of marks is evolving nature of the form in which it is making. In order to understand the factors causing the changes in the retail sector is useful to examine some key examples of changes in each of these four elements.

Since the eighties and most forcefully from the nineties has become part of the corporate language the terms of purchase marketing and marketing supply. Essentially, many companies have started to apply the logic of marketing, commonly associated with company-customer relationship, the area of procurement markets and hence the relations with suppliers.
evolution in order to understand clearly the key strategic purchasing function, and then the assertion of purchase marketing, it is useful to focus on some of the changes socio-economic context that over time have created new organizational paradigms in business. During the first phase (up around the fifties), companies tended to internalize the production stages upstream (vertical integration), often through the acquisition of companies providing.
In the sixties and seventies the evolution of production, characterized by increasing technological complexity, required increasing specialization that led the companies to resort to external providers with specific expertise in various areas. At this stage, the purchasing policy of the companies was directed to the selection of a number of suppliers, places the company in competition with the goal of determining purchase prices as low as possible (MacIntyre, 2006).
Among the seventies and eighties, the changes of the competitive scenario forcing companies to operate on the basis of new concepts of quality and reliability, leading to the affirmation of the new models of just-in-time, whose aim is to ensure that the goods purchased arrive in the company at the very moment in which it is be used, and then inserted into the production process, avoiding unnecessary stops in stock. At this stage, firms tend to forge partnerships with their suppliers, with the goal to successfully respond to the new needs of the consumer markets.
Since the nineties, the significant increase in the cost of research and development, the need to reconcile innovation and flexibility, the increasing expectations of demanding consumers, have led companies to make even stronger relationship with its suppliers, to the sharing of risks and business opportunities of the client (MacIntyre, 2006). Currently, the guidelines in relation to the prevailing corporate purchasing policies can be summarized as follows:
·         reducing the number of suppliers, which usually coincides with a greater integration;
·         tendency to the development of more accurate forecasts of future production needs (with the aim of reducing inventories);
·         Distinction between strategic supplies for which may be appropriate reports, supplies and non-strategic, for which it may be appropriate global sourcing (ie the search for the most appropriate supplier on world markets), or outsourcing, or the search a leading provider and manager of a number of secondary supplies.
On the basis of these premises is clearer change made ​​by the purchasing function, whose role becomes increasingly important and strategic in a growing number of companies of all sizes. People have seen how the current market characteristics have led companies to strengthen integration with their primary suppliers, whose contribution becomes therefore essential for the achievement of the business objectives and the construction of the value chain. In this context, the purchasing manager no longer identifies its role in the search for the lowest price through competition among suppliers, and its goal today is rather to integrate strategic suppliers in the business system, operating in a logical long-term. The caterers roles identify therefore less and less with that of “buyer” and extend in a functional logic that takes into account the policies and strategies in technology, management and quality.
This role, as people have seen renewed according to the new needs of the market and companies located in the logic of a valid purchase marketing support for its implementation. The purchase marketing (strategic sourcing) is based, as already mentioned, on the same principles of marketing aimed affirmation of goods and services on the market. Is a tool of efficiency allows companies to take advantage of all the opportunities offered by the market supply and arises from the need to create an intelligence in support of the procurement manager, which must take into account market increasingly large and apart under the pressure of globalization and rapid technological change. In marketing, purchasing remain valid steps summarized in the marketing cycle: analysis, planning, implementation, monitoring.

The analysis phase in the purchase marketing takes the form:
·         study of the environment, in terms of socio-economic, financial, technological (eg, assessment of the state of research and identification of areas of concentration technologies), socio-cultural;
·         study of the market, with particular attention to the scale of operations (production, import-export, consumption), with the aim to predict the price situation connected to the supply-demand relationship, in reference to the needs of the company;
·         Study of the product: classification of the product and its basic raw materials, semi-finished products, components, analysis of production processes. In summary, what does the market of what the company needs;
·         assessment of levels of quality: quality promise to the market, assessing the criteria of evaluation of suppliers;
·         Study of channels: characteristics, size, production capacity, trade and economic policies and programs of expansion and diversification of potential suppliers.

The planning phase consists essentially in the definition of policies and strategies relating to the area of supply, necessarily consistent with the policies, development plans, and production plans of the company (Lei, 1996). At this stage that defines the criteria for classification of supplies (strategic or non-strategic) and the choices of possible forms of marketing. Product, price, communication channels are the levers of procurement mix. Do not underestimate the importance of communication in relation to the acquisition, which is essential both within the company in a cross-functional logic, and externally (to the markets of supply) to transfer the corporate image and inform the characteristics, needs and purchasing policies of the company. The realization is naturally operations, the definition of the agreements, the implementation of relations with suppliers and partners, although in some cases, as people have seen, the partnership includes involvement in all phases: analysis of opportunities, defining goals, development strategies, and production plans.
Closing the cycle of purchase marketing provides, through the control phase, the verification that the actual results achieved by the operation and objectives defined at strategic levels of quality achieved, fair weather, real integration capabilities inside and outside the company.
It 'so obvious that the application of purchase marketing effectively supports the operational activities of buyers, even considering that the share of goods and services purchased by companies outside influence today 50% to 80% of turnover. For this reason, companies are increasingly convinced that the efficiency of the procurement in a profound effect on both the creation of the margins on the preservation and development of corporate competitive advantages. Correspondingly increasing the expected return of the supplies against by the leaders, that considers strategic sourcing as a source of value for the company. This approach is closer to the logic of Supply Chain Management, which can be defined as a transversal process undertaken by several companies and functions in an integrated manner, and with greater efficiency and competitiveness. It is "a systematic and strategic coordination of the traditional business functions and tactics, first within the company, then on the various members of the supply chain, with the aim of improving the long-term performance of individual members and of entire supply chain from raw materials to the end customer (Lynch, 2003).
Course, the use of appropriate information systems is the basis of a proper strategic management of the area, and to ensure adequate support to the planning and execution of processes, and to manage the flow of information between the various functions company and with external partners. Within the framework, evolving, it is also important to consider the innovations activity of supply of new technologies (Jennifer, 2009). There is talk of e-procurement in relation to all the technologies that, through the web, allowing to acquire products and services online. A phenomenon linked to supplies online is that of marketplaces, real virtual markets where buyers and suppliers come into contact. The e-hubs are defined when referring to a specific vertical industry or horizontal when referring to different industrial sectors. A fairly common method of buying on-line is represented by the so-called reverse auctions (reverse auctions), in which many suppliers offer their offerings to customers seeking to acquire, through a competition focused on different elements of the product / service sought by the potential customer (Lynch, 2003).

It is a set of human characteristics associated with a brand name. Includes features such as sex, age, and socio-economic class, as well as human personality traits such as warmth, involvement and sentimentality. For example, Guess is considered sophisticated in contrast to the harshness of Wrangler. Nike is considered while LA Gear athletic tends to be perceived as more fashionable (Jennifer, 2009).
The personality of the brand, as the human personality is both distinctive and enduring. On the other hand, the brand personality helps the strategist to enrich and deepen the understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of people towards a particular brand (this provides information about the relationship of clients with the brand), contributing to an identity differentiated brand (the brand personality defines not only the brand, but also the context and experience of the product class, giving the brand positioning in the customer's mind), guiding the communication effort and creating value for the brand (Lynch, 2003).
A brand can help a person to express their personality in different ways, such as the generation of different feelings depending on the brand you use a certain product category (Miller, 2004). It is also the case of brands that a person used as a personal expression, as in the case of brands like Ferrari that generate substantial social impact, as the person who drives a car of this brand aims to express to others their position socio-economic, sporting and daring spirit, among other features of the brand with which this individual is identified. So, you can reach the point where "the brand becomes part of you." That is, the brand becomes an extension or part of oneself. This happens with that graphic designer, Apple user who is always in front of your computer; it is part of his person (Wood, 2000). For the person who ends up drinking Gatorade physical activity, drink remineralizante not just an expression of who you are (dedicated athlete), but a part of your lifestyle. In this sense, the potential to create a unit with some people is a significant opportunity for a brand. Finally, the organization must be aware that the brand personality must fit the needs of self-expression of the target: The personality of the brand should be desired and important enough to worry the person using it, ie the person should feel better because of a particular association with the brand (Chanel perfume sophisticated when used). In this sense, a personality that fits your target will not work (Jennifer, 2009).

In general, the most appropriate is to use creative techniques such as the literary tropes, advertising techniques and techniques based on partnership (Jennifer, 2009).
Some of the techniques applied are:
    Analogy: Based on the idea of ​​similarity or likeness evocation more or less directly to the product. The analogy is pursued through questions such as: "what do you think?", "What do you remember?", "Where from?", "What is that?", "Why serve?”etc relating to the product and it’s physical or emotional.
    Strangeness, contrast factors or originality and novelty. Is to use a name suggestive phonetic wholly outside its direct characters, analog or descriptive.
    Evocation: Find a name that suggests emotional or psychological situations, a world of values ​​and positive meanings related to the public of the mark.
    Amplification: Consists superlative form assess the company, brand or product, through evocative names of some gigantism. All this in order to create a high-power and universality.
    Reliability: Applies to products that require this features such as pharmaceuticals, dietary, food
    Combinatorics: It's a free way to meet different concepts in order to enhance the effect of the name. Combine well, fragments of names, letters, numbers,
    Listing and Matrix: Use tables and matrices from letters of the alphabet.
    Brainstorming: Gathered in a group, people follow rules, must issue as many ideas as possible related to the study (brand name) in question. All of them will be collected, analyzed and then tabulated, eliminating long names, complicated, unpronounceable, banal or inadequate, manually or using computer programs. It reduces the number to three or four, which will be analyzed, depending on the aims and tested for possible registration.

The image is intangible but it serves for a certain company communicate its corporate culture and create a brand, logo and corporate identity, which will be known, admired, accessed, used and taken into account from that time by the society to which it is addressed. Without that image or recognition of their products or services, any company would be known today.
Every brand has a certain image, which through its efficient planning and control can become an effective communication strategy that supports at all times and each of their products. Not enough to sell services or products, you have to communicate and set images from the creators, so it is necessary to create a self-identification (brand), which results in unique, homogeneous global differentiate it from the rest by allowing means of attributes as confidence, personality, effort, wealth, full service, effectiveness, reliability, continuous development, technology sharing, external openness, social benefit, business management, etc.
In short, the overall picture is the result of an integrated and effective management of all procedures, media and communication opportunities, that is, communication that is based on corporate identity brand. Do not confuse the brand (as a sign of verbal or graphic nature) with the image transmitted through the advertising and presentation of products (branding). Brand image and ensures competitiveness gives notoriety to the company and its products. The brand is the center around which creates and develops this image, which is usually done by accumulation of all manifestations of the company: the way they do, how they say things through their communicative actions (including advertising , their products, their packaging / packaging and act at the point of sale or merchandising)(Hellofs, and Jacobson, 1999).
Brand image is a consequence of how the brand is perceived. It is a mental representation of the attributes and perceived benefits of the brand. The perception of the marks have to do with mental processes and personality of the consumer, because the brain processes the information it receives about brands, coding them according to their external values, but each individual, depending on their personality.
The perception of the marks is what gives form and content to something that no longer an abstraction, a mental conception of product characteristics and symbolic values ​​attributed by advertising and promotion, to get the consumer preference (Hellofs, and Jacobson, 1999).
Therefore, people can define the brand image as a set of perceptions, associations, memories and prejudices that the public process on its head and whose synthesis is a mental image of the product, through its representation - value and the benefits and satisfactions that it received or think they can get through their name and advertising.
When the image of a brand is positive, it is adding real value to a product, it provides security and consumer confidence. Allows a company justify a price above average, who willingly paid by consumers (Mintel, 2007). The important thing is not so much the image to convey the brands, but their ability to establish their authority and superiority over the competition. Now for a brand to gain strength must associate with important values ​​and decisions of human behavior, it will give it a leading position as an emotional relationship is achieved which ensures the credibility and consumer confidence, resulting in a preference for the brand and repeat purchase. Brands can have a long life and not have to depend on the product life cycle. A high qualification of the brand in consumers' minds can allow a healthy and long life (Hellofs, and Jacobson, 1999).
The brand image should be set around the following values:
· Values ​​refer to products: Differentiation, authenticity and credibility. The homogeneity of the products is one of the causes of the failure of a large number of brands that end up being unknown to the public (Ryals, 2005).
Knowing the position that the image of a product or brand in the market occupied is especially important for planning future communication strategies that the company decides to pursue. Within product values, various possible types of actions to position the product:
According to the characteristics of the product: The price, economy, durability, robustness, etc, Are features that can be highlighted to position a product or brand.
According to the benefits or problems that the product solves
As used or occasions of use
 For the class of users: Is to highlight the kind of people who used the product
 In relation to other products: This leads to the realization of comparative advertising. This type of action can be carried out directly, citing brands of competitors or, more generically, indicating the superiority of the label relative to the others in the competition without these is cited expressly
On the dissociation of the product class: This strategy aims to uncheck the competitor’s product

Values ​​refer to consumers: complacency, complacency and self-expression (personal and social)
Values ​​refer to communication: Notoriety, truthfulness and persuasiveness. Hence the search advertising purchase proposition (benefit argued) meaningful, credible and inspiring novel.
The brand is essentially a stereotype, an image in the consumer's mind. The brand aspects to note are:
    His ambivalence: On one hand, the content of the picture is the same for everyone, but the emotional tone is different for each subject.
    Its consistency: The brand produces a set of attitudes and representations that form a coherent whole.
    Your conscious or unconscious state: In the first case, the image appears in views expressed emotions freely or manifest.
To get the image that has a certain brand, people should analyze the consumer and their relationship with the following product features:
Consumer experience with the product: Although not always related, as the consumer can create brand images without having any personal experience with the product.
Quality inherent to the product / product features
Product functionality

Traditional online advertising is effective even without clicking ongoing exposure and also generates a long-term positive impact on the image of the brand. This emerges from a study conducted by the German Association of the Digital Economy which states that the success and effectiveness of online advertising not only reside on measurable results through the figures reported the number of clicks, but the factor of branding and exposure of the brand on the internet can also help make a positive impact on them (Hellofs, and Jacobson, 1999).
The study which analyzed campaigns of different brands like MINI, Opel, Philips, LG, Maggi or Nesquik, also lists among its main conclusions that the "online branding" through display advertising on the Internet can be used to an impact can linger in the minds of users and consumers even weeks after exposure (Ryals, 2005).
In this sense, Branding strategies on the internet are becoming more common, so people are at a point where there is a need to define the parameters necessary for the management of the brand in this environment (Kumar, 2005).
Despite stating that in the future the advertising model based on the click might happen to the background, the fact is that currently the Branding based online display advertising seems to be the most overlooked by companies ... or not (Lado, 1992).
Brands opt for online branding to increase the level of recall among users and consumers
We must say that the online Branding extends far beyond strategies based solely on advertising. In social networks involving trademarks was intensified thereby being able to demonstrate the positive effects of creating a relationship with the users and consumers. Branding is no longer reduced to playing with the creative elements of the brand itself but extends under the premise of being present and actively participates in social media and environments (Kumar, 2005).
On the Internet, brands have taken the lead as the Social Media Marketing You champion. However, the conversation alone is not enough. Brands should keep looking and creative visibility and visual impact. Before joining the conversation, brands must meet a clear goal, to be identified and recognized in the minds of consumers (Ryals, 2005).
The segmentation of Internet media allows companies to analyze and identify patterns directly related to all kinds of different professional sectors by theme, target audience, user profile, etc. ... and this is where brands seek greater visibility to increase level impact and recall.
For this reason companies have begun to expand their vision in this regard seeking new scenarios where detect values ​​that can be inherited, transmitted to their partners and brands to settle on them (Hellofs, and Jacobson, 1999). The mere fact that consumers perceive them as having a set of values ​​that appeal, it means you reject or at least tend to reject those that do not have names such securities.
Therefore, large companies have decided to take a 360 degree turn and bet heavily on marketing strategies and online branding in order to maximize impact, visibility, and increase the level of recall among users and consumers (Ryals, 2005).
But if this is so important, why online advertising clicks from forget the value of branding?
The CPC, which stands for (cost per click) has been so far the most widespread and advertising model used by companies and advertisers to advertise on the Internet, but for many media and means this model is no longer considered a cost-effective and attractive in favor of other models like CPM (cost per thousand impressions) or direct sponsorship.
However, no internet means everyone wins. Many of the results-based advertising models that are forgotten aspects that branding or branding strategies should also report to the media compensation available to their advertising media (Williamson, 1985).
Unlike what happens in the world of traditional advertising, on the Internet and especially in the "CPC campaigns based graphics", it seems that the value of Branding has moved to the background and is, in some way belittles, and forgets underestimates the presence, visibility and notoriety of a brand are very important factors which necessarily have to be adjusted in the cost of online advertising models (Winsted, 2000).

It is true that from the point of view of the "poster online", the current approach offers the potential to reduce costs and adjust according to your results and online advertising campaigns with limited budgets and without the need for large investments (Ryals, 2005). So many are saying about the real value of the click and display advertising as advertising model based on this may be seen as an abuse for the media and media who use online advertising to deliberately develop branding campaigns for we all know that there will be no clicks. So this is where the lack detect imperative to define the parameters necessary for brand management and measurement of their impact on an advertising model valid for a medium like the Internet (Winsted, 2000).


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