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June 25, 2014

Internet Crimes Against Children

Laws govern the universe. There are physical laws expounded and established by science. Moral laws or codes draw their support and authority from the scriptures and beliefs systems. Social and economic laws cover and explain human behavior and govern social and economic institutions. Political laws or state laws are framed and enforce for running the government machinery and regulating the conduct of the citizens.
Indeed all the affairs in human life are governed by certain rules and regulations that impose limits and disciplines on men living in civilized community. If there are no laws, rules and regulations, there shall be disorder, confusion and chaos in the society: Might shall be right and no body’s life honor and property will be safe. Freedom shall become licentiousness. It is the laws that help in running the machinery of the state smoothly and in discharging its functions satisfactorily and justly.
Early researchers found that certainty, not severity, of threatened punishment serves to deter. Later researcher described that interaction of formal and informal sanctions are the key to the puzzle.  In other words, legal punishment like arrest and jail are most effective when they set off more intimidating informal costs: stigma (embarrassment); attachment costs (loss of relationship); and commitment costs like loss of educational, occupational, and marital opportunities (William and Hawkins, 1986). Thus such factors as employment and marital status can help determine whether formal sanction will deter crime (Berk et al., 1992). Deterrence, only works with people who have something to lose in the reverberation of informal sanctions (Toby, 1957).


1.1 Families in the modern societies

In the past families in modern society like United States, seemed to provide stability and security. Actually, they also featured dictatorial fathers and husbands, tremendous pressure to marry, limited choices in a marital partner or in the framework of the relationship, and little opportunity to escape an unhappy or violent marriage. Now the American family appears to be sinking beneath waves of tumultuous change, breaking into fragments inadequate for meeting many people’s personal and social needs. 
The life and society has changed in a manner, which has affected the family structure also. Nearly one third of all children in America live in a single parent household. Even in the family of two parents, parents do not have time for their children. The pace of society is so fast that they have to go to offices to live according to the standards of the society. The youth of today miss the real parental love.
 This has caused increased incidences of long term emotional and behavioral problems amongst the teenagers of today. The ethical and moral disorder is responsible for increasing violence, drug abuse, teen pregnancy, homosexuality etc. in the teenagers of today.
As parents have much time for their teens in the past they have much control over their children. The youth also respect their parents, which can be proved by their cloths, and their hairstyles. Although teens used to adopt different fashions in clothing and hairstyles, but they do respect the decision of their parents. The main reason was the parents and youths have better understanding and relationship then, and they both had time for each other. Tattoos were also not very popular in past because of the same reason. Actually youths used their bodies and clothing to show who has the control. Today’s clothing and hairstyles clearly depicts that the parents do not have sufficient time for their children, thus they have lost control over their children. This is also the reason for the popularity of tattoos among children of high schools.
For centuries, individuals have turned to the bosom of the family for protection from harm, the nursing of ills, and emotional support. Today, families risk litigation if they protect themselves instead of call the police. They rely on the expanding healthcare system for most medical treatment. So where can a person turn, tough, for an emotional haven? In today’s increasingly impersonal society, the family remains the primary source of physical and emotional well-being.
Stripped of so many traditional functions, it seems obvious that modernism has deteriorated the present family structure and society.  From the functionalist perspective, family can be viewed as one of several major institutions, all of which are evolving and adapting to changes in the others, each one striving to maintain equilibrium.  Thus we can justifiably label the deep-rooted changes over the past century as deterioration, making the imminent decline of the family seem both inevitable and worrisome.


1.2 Information Society

Today’s world is an information society. Many historians are agreed that information had a great impact on many things and produced a new environment from technologies that already exist. The information technology affected many things like intelligence, logistics, command and control etc.
The Information Society can be determined as the large group of people within a country or a region wherein most workers generate or depend upon information for performance of their jobs. Today information is the largest export of most News services, banks, insurance companies, television stations etc. these all organizations collect data, process it into information, distribute it, and store it as a major part of their business.
The term Information Society is often used to refer the new socio-economic technological paradigm, which occurs due to the results of changes that are taking place. The information society has the ability to improve the quality of life of the citizens of today’s world, the efficiency of our social and economical organization and to reinforce cohesion.

1.2.1 What is Internet?

Internet has affected and changed the world of communication. Internet is a medium of collaboration and interaction of people of different geographical locations.
Many networks existed in the world, often with different hardware and software. People connected to one network often want to communicate with people attached to a different network. This desire require connecting together different, and frequently incompatible networks, sometimes by using machines called gateways to make the connection and provide the necessary translation, both in terms of hardware and software. A collection of interconnected networks is called Internet.
A common form of Internet is a collection of LANs (Local Area Network) connected by WAN (Wide Area Network). Internet is widely used to connect universities, government offices, companies and private individuals.
In the last few years Internet become the buzzword of the world. It is now become a commodity service, and much of the latest attention has been on the use of this global information infrastructure for support of commercial services. This process has been accelerated by the advent of World Wide Web technology, allowing users easy access to information linked throughout the globe. 

1.3 Crime on Internet

The right to privacy-to various extents-is guaranteed by the law. The best-known legal basis for claims to privacy is contained in the Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution. The Fourth Amendment protects U.S. citizens from, “unreasonable searches and seizures…. Of person, house, papers, and effects” (Bill of Rights). After the advent of Computer and electronic communications, United States government had also announced Electronic Communication Privacy Act (1986). This law provides privacy protection to communication involving new forms of technology. In particular, this legislation clearly identifies electronic mail and makes it a Federal crime to intercept these computer-based transmissions (Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986)
Computers do not invade anybody’s privacy- people do. And because computer systems are designed to be user friendly, it may not be unauthorized people to get access to personal data. People must be able to protect their computer files and limit file access only to authorized users (Lawrence et al). Companies do not like the idea of giving privacy choices to their clients. They consider it a threat to their influence on customer’s data. Analyst of Meridien Research Inc., Dennis Behrman said, “you won't lose customers if you offer privacy options, but you may lose access to your ability to gain information"  (Thibodeau).

On November 2001 Harris Interactive for Privacy and American Business had conducted a survey titled, “Privacy On and Off the Internet. What Consumers want”, on the privacy issues of online business. Results of the survey revealed that 75 percent of consumers are concerned about the safety of their privacy; 70 percent thought that their transactions are not safe; 69 percent are worried that hackers can steal their confidential information. Kristin Valente, Earnest & Young’s innovative assurance partner said, “One of the things that surprised me the most is the way consumers reacted to suspicion of mistreatment of personal information. It’s a ‘one strike and you’re out’ policy with consumers. There was really very little that they indicated companies can do once you’ve lost their [consumers’] trust, although trust can be built with independent verification. But you have a long row to hoe to get back the trust and confidence of the consumer if you make a mistake” (Hollis).
There are four general categories of threats:
  • Interruption: An asset of the system is destroyed or become unavailable or unusable. This is threat to availability
  • Interception: An unauthorized party gains access to an asset. This is threat to secrecy. The unauthorized party could be a person, a program or a computer
  • Modification: An unauthorized party not only gains access but tempers with an asset. This is threat to integrity
  • Fabrication: An unauthorized party inserts counterfeit object into the system. This is a threat to integrity (Hoffman, 1990)
The two most important and most publicized threats to security are:
·         Intruders
·         Malicious Programs


1.3.1 Intruders:

An intruder is generally referred to as a hacker or cracker. Intruder attacks range from benign to the serious. Benign intruders might be tolerable, although they do consume resources and may slow performance for legitimate users. However there is no way in advance to know whether an intruder will be benign or malign.
Hackers are of two levels. The high-level attackers were sophisticated users with a thorough knowledge of the technology. The low-level attackers were the “foot soldiers” that merely used the supplied cracking programs with little understanding of how they worked.
Intruders may run the password –cracking program, attempted to modify login software to enable them to capture passwords of users logging on to systems (Pfleeger, 1989).

1.3.2 Intrusion Techniques:

The objective of the intruder is to gain access to a system or to increase the range of privileges accessible on a system. Generally, this requires the intruder to acquire information that should have been protected. In most cases, this information is in the form of a user password. With knowledge of some other user’s password, an intruder can log into the system and exercise all the privileges accorded to the legitimate user.
Typically, a system must maintain a file that associates a password with each authorized user. If such a file is stored with no protection, then it is an easy method to gain access to it and learn passwords.

1.4 Child Sexual Abuse:

The dilemma of neglecting a sexually mistreated child is that he/she scared to disclose the incident to any one and for that reason most of the sexual abuse crimes were not registered with the police. This problem would be resolved if the victim of sexual abuse lodge a complaint against online pedophile or criminal immediately. Only 80,000 cases registered in a year while the real figure of these types of crimes is much higher. Victims need extra care and help to get rid of that trauma.
A kid can be sexually exploited by any one and none of the victims get ready to deal with continuous sexual harassment. The predator can be a family member, care taker or outsider. As terrible incident has happen a mixture of stressful and excruciating behavior building up in the victim.
The kids who can identify and cautious for the sex addict can be ensnared between love and fidelity of anyone and feel that the sexual tricks are dreadfully immoral. The pedophiles never want to let the victims go and always terrorize with violent and affectionless behavior. A kid who suffers sexually mistreated in long term generally grows with low confidence, a sense of triviality and aberrant thoughts of sex. The kid may develop into abandon and incredulous of adults, and can become in the depths of despair.
After experiencing terrible sexual incidents some kids facing intricacy with others apart from sexual stipulations. As they approach to their maturity some of them ensue into pedophiles or involve in sexual activities for money and others having life-threatening illness.
Most of the time there are no observable evidences on the body of victims. Only a medical expert can identify a few evidences.
Victims of sexual assault may grow with the following symptoms:
·                     Strange attention in or escaping of all effects of a sexual character
·                     Insomnia or nightmares
·                     Dejection or abandonment from buddies or relatives
·                     Alluring
·                     It is reported that they are filthy, hurt and full of panic in their mind that they have injuries in genital area
·                     Do not want to go to school
·                     Criminal behavior / demeanor problems
·                     Furtiveness
·                     Expression of sexual assault in diagram, sports, imagination
·                     Strange ferociousness, or
·                     Behavior like with nothing to live for 
Victims are exceptionally frightened by criminals, and require extra care, politeness, friendliness and merely warmth endeavor to let him/her unveil the painful truth. It is parent’s responsibility, when victims disclose that they have been physically abused, to keep their child serene and encourage that they have not done any thing wrong and bring them to a psychiatric and medical specialist for a thorough check up.
Only parents help the child to minimize the risk of being molested by following:
·                     Counsel kids that do not let any one to fondle or caress with your body which you feel strange try to find some one from your family, friends and neighborhood and go away from that person
  • Educate your kids that never faith blindly on anyone and do not obey every instruction given by your caretaker or instructor.
·         Support specific trainings on deterrence offered by community institutions
The molested kids and their relatives require rapid expert consideration and care. To recoup the victim’s confidence and eradicate the remorse, start the techniques of surmount the problem go to the specialists. This type of effective treatment is good to minimize the danger of severe tribulations as a matured person.

Chapter 2: The Security Issues of Internet and prevention of children against Internet Crimes

Security is one of the most important concerns of Internet crimes. If a family want to make their children secure by the online predators, they have to provide the following securities:
·         Physical Security
·         Authentication and non repudiation
·         Software security

2.1 Physical Security:

The physical security is actually the safeguarding of organization’s computers from hackers and viruses. For viruses the company can use anti-virus software and for hackers Firewall will be the answer.

2.1..1 Firewall:

Firewall is used by the companies to ensure the security of their computers and their network. Firewall is composed of two components, two routers that do packet filtering and an application gateway.
Each packet filter is a standard router with some extra functionality. This extra functionality allows the router to check each incoming and outgoing packet. Packets who passed the check forwarded normally and the packets that failed the test are dropped.
Firewall is structured in such a way that the packet filters in the inside LAN checks the outgoing packets while the packet filter in the outside LAN checks incoming packets. The purpose of putting two packet filters on different LANs is to make sure that no packets get in or out without passing through the application gateway.
The second part of the firewall mechanism is application gateway. This gateway operates at the application level. For example a mail gateway can be set up to examine each message going in or coming out. For each mail, the application gateway decides to transmit or discard it based on header fields, message size, or the content of the mail.  

2.2 Authentication and non repudiation:

The authentication and non-repudiation are actually the security checks for the integrity and privacy of the user. To ensure the privacy and authenticity the technologies of encryption and digital signature are used.

2.3 Encryption:

From the very beginning cryptography has been used by the four groups of the people. These four groups are:
·         Military
·         Diplomatic corps
·         Diarists
·         Lovers
On all of these groups, military has had the most important role and has shaped the field. Within military organizations, the messages to be encrypted have traditionally been to code clerks for encryption and transmission.
Until the advent of computers, the main constraint on cryptography is the ability of the code clerk to perform the necessary transformation and the difficulty of switching from one cryptographic method to another. Computer also uses the same basic idea for cryptography but its emphasis is different. Traditionally simple algorithms were used for cryptography and the security was based on the very long keys. Nowadays the reverse is true; the object is to make the encryption algorithms so complex that it is almost impossible to break it. There are two fundamental principals of cryptography:
·         Symmetric
·         Public Key

2.3.1 Symmetric:

Symmetric encryption system operates in a manner that only one key is used. It is very secure, but the problem is that the party who wants to decrypt the message needs the same key. This is its weakness because it is not secure to transmit the key electronically.
Following are some of the algorithms based on this principal of encryption.

2.4 Password Protection:

The front line of defense against intruders is the password system. Virtually all multi-user systems and servers require that a user provide not only a name or identifier (ID) but also a password. The passwords serve to authenticate the ID of the individual logging on to the system. In turn, the ID provides security in the following ways:
·         The ID determines whether the user is authorized to gain access to a system. In some systems, only those who already have an ID filed on the systems are allowed to gain access.
·         The ID determines the privileges accorded to the users. A few users may have supervisory or “super user” status that enables them to read files and performs functions that are especially protected by the operating system. Some systems have guest or anonymous accounts, and users of these accounts have more limited privileges than others.
·         The ID is used in what is referred to as discriminatory access control. For example, by listing the IDs of the other users, a user may grant permission to them to read files owned by that user.     

2.5 User Control Access:

User access control in a distributed environment is either centralized or decentralized. If A centralized approach is used then the network provides a log-on service to determine who is allowed to use the network and to whom the user is allowed to connect.
In a decentralized approach, the destination host does the user log-on process.

2.6 Intrusion Detection:

Intrusion detection is also an important technique to detect any intruders coming into the system. Following are some of the techniques to detect intrusion into the system:
·         Statistical Anomaly detection: in this approach, the data is collected relating to the behavior of authorized users. Then statistical tests are applied to know whether the behavior is legitimate user behavior or not.
·         Rule based detection: in this approach a define set of rules are used to decide whether the behavior of a user is legitimate or not.


Chapter 3: Survey and its findings

The usage of internet among teenagers is increasing day by day and no study available that enable to show that how many online predators enticing children and publicize the sexual stuff and spread harassment over the internet.
There are different types of online sexual exploitations:
·         Methods and enticing: Pedophiles trade fake information with children for sexual solicitation. Alluring them by sending gifts, valuable items, tickets and give financial support
·         Persistent sexual attempts: Online predators always trying to prepare their victims for a personal meeting. For that purpose they every possible way to make a contact with them.
·         Exhibition undesired sexual stuff: Online predators send images of nude persons and persons involve in sexual activities. Some times when you become online this type of undesired sexual materials comes automatically and via e-mails.
·         Pestering: Threatening to publicize or distributing the sexual images of the victim over the internet
The awareness of online sexual violence for parents or families is mandatory. They should know what and how safety measures takes place to prevent their children against online sexual exploitation.

3.1 Findings

The study outcome presented the following things to see
  • “One in 5 youth received a sexual approach or solicitation over the Internet in the past year.
  • One in 33 youth received an aggressive sexual solicitation in the past year. This means a predator asked a young person to meet somewhere, called a young person on the phone, and/or sent the young person correspondence, money, or gifts through the U.S. Postal Service.
  • One in 4 youth had an unwanted exposure in the past year to pictures of naked people or people having sex.
  • One in 17 youth was threatened or harassed in the past year.
  • Most young people who reported these incidents were not very disturbed about them, but a few found them distressing.
  • Only a fraction of all episodes was reported to authorities such as the police, an Internet service provider, or a hotline.
  • About 25 percent of the youth who encountered a sexual approach or solicitation told a parent. Almost 40 percent of those reporting an unwanted exposure to sexual material told a parent.
  • Only 17 percent of youth and 11 percent of parents could name a specific authority, such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), CyberTipline, or an Internet service provider, to which they could report an Internet crime, although more indicated they were vaguely aware of such authorities.
·         In households with home Internet access, one-third of parents said they had filtering or blocking software on their computers” (U.S. Department of Justice, 2001)


Numerous natures differentiate online offenses from other offenses performed against kids:
·         The corporal relation among the pedophile and the kid does not require happening for a kid to turn into a victim or for an offense to be done. Angelic photographs of kids can be digitally altered into obscene stuff and supplied everywhere online without the sufferers’ information.
·         The Internet gives an option to criminals for on-going ill-treatment of a youngster that exists so long, mostly without the innocent’s information. After a kid’s image is exhibit online, it lasts there forever. Pictures be able to continue online endlessly without any disfigurement of the picture quality.
·         These offenses go beyond territorial range of legal authorities, mostly relating various sufferers from unlike geographical and cultural positions. Location of a prospective target is not bothering online predators who aim sufferers over the Internet. Mostly, criminals keep traveling from one state to another state and even go to different countries to satisfy their aberrant desires with innocent kids they encountered over the Internet. Lots of occurrences include local, state, federal, and international law implementing bodies in several territorial range of authority.
·         Several sufferers of online offenses do not want to unveil their victimization or comprehend that they have been sufferers of an offense. While kids who experience bodily or sexually exploit may divulge the incident to one of his/her buddy or close relatives, several sufferers of Internet offenses linger unidentified until or unless images or photographs are exposed by police or other agencies in an inquisition. The supposed obscurity of online tricks commonly gives an artificial intuits of protection and confidentiality jointly for the criminal and his prey.

We are living in Information age, and in the Information society it is almost impossible to ignore the importance of Internet in any walk of life.
All these statistics and results mentioned above have clearly shown that although online crimes is a major concern and barrier for the growth of civilization but still number of online users is rising with exponential rate.
Our children are our Nation's most valuable asset. They represent the bright future of our country and hold our hopes for a better Nation. Our children are also the most vulnerable members of society. Protecting our children against the fear of crime and from becoming victims of crime must be a national priority.
Unfortunately the same advances in computer and telecommunication technology that allow our children to reach out to new sources of knowledge and cultural experiences are also leaving them vulnerable to exploitation and harm by computer-sex offenders
Children have embraced the Internet with remarkable alacrity, as they go online to learn, play, and communicate with their friends. The Internet clearly influences how a growing number of children discover and interact with the world around them.
Unfortunately, cyberspace is not always a safe place for youngsters to visit. Some sex offenders use the privacy and anonymity of the Internet to prey on vulnerable children and teenagers, whose Internet access is often unsupervised. In exchanging child pornography or seeking victims online, sex offenders may face little risk of interdiction of their criminal activities.
To combat computer-facilitated sex crimes, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention funds the Internet Crimes against Children (ICAC) Task Force Program, which protects children in cyberspace.
Although apprehending sex offenders who use the Internet to facilitate their crimes presents significant challenges, the ICAC Program can help State and local law enforcement agencies to develop an effective response to online enticement and child pornography cases. Included in this response are community education, forensic, investigative, and victim service components.
We encourage parents, policymakers, and practitioners to use the information provided by this Bulletin to help create an Internet environment in which children can safely play, learn, and grow.



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