Q. Compares and contrast different organizational structures and culture
A formal organization is a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more people. The three essential elements of an organization are:
· Common Purpose
· Willingness to Serve and
The organization is driven by five forces such as strategic summit pushes centralization, techno standardization of work processes, members of the operational center seeks to minimize the influence of management analysts and pushes for decentralization, operational managers are seeking autonomy through decentralization limited vertical and finally functional logistics by creating constellations coordinated by mutual adjustment and provides the logistical support some influence. In the five forces, organization may adopt an organic structure or mechanistic structure (Shafritz & Ott, 2001).
This mechanistic structure corresponds to routine and highly specialized organizational structure. The grouping of tasks is based on functions. The units are large. Coordination is done by standardizing work processes and techno thus emerges as an essential part of the structure. It is a structure where there is an obsession with control that relies on the establishment of rules and procedures. Mechanistic structure comes in the form of mature business whose size is sufficient to have a volume of operational work for repetition and standardization. When the work is simple, this organizational structure can provide virtually all its administrative component.
Burns and Stalker (1966) showed that organizations that need innovation in a changing environment require a type of organic structure. Thus, the community and valuation of informal versus hierarchical process management could promote creativity and provide a source of value for the organizations. This fact is still ironic reflected the importance that had scientific thought as a regulator of organizations and as a source of value. Organic structure is usually sought by many organizations but it cannot exist in its true sense. It is a network of professional and talented employees who perform a number of tasks at the same time.
Organic organizations have no mission or vision statements but it allows its employees to develop such statements for them if they deem appropriate. This gives a sense of belonging to the employees. The company believes that fairness builds loyalty and trust, so it always tries to be fair.
Q. Explain how the relationship between an organization’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business
Relationship between Corporate Culture and Organizational Structure
Burns & Stalker (1961) were the first to demonstrate a relationship between the structure of the company and the environment. When firms experience a stable environment in terms of technological change and market operation they adopt a bureaucratic structure that Burns and Stalker called "mechanistic". In the case of environmental instability, however, the structure adopted is characterized as "organic." Organic structure opposes the mechanical structure insofar formalization is low, informal communication and decentralization important.
In mechanistic structure, there are many conflicts between effectiveness and satisfaction of individuals, indeed they are often treated as means rather than as individuals. To solve the problems of coordination, this structure can be used to direct supervision. More strategically, these are companies that do not change and do not fit. Coercion or fixed rules, any means of control or strict centralization, consistent with the mechanistic approach.
The rationality of the mechanistic approach becomes indistinguishable from the bureaucracy. Organization designed and managed as if it were a machine. The entire company is like a machine. Who said machine, also known as rust, sand and grain cogs seizing. Mechanical company malfunctions, not only in relation to customer expectations, but also with respect to its own goals. Principle is not to meet all the needs, but to destroy or ignore certain information to facilitate treatment. The degree of non-company bureaucracy could be measured by its ability to satisfy customers despite overload and incidents, for unforeseen needs and specific.
A current trend of mechanistic structure is coordination between more or less automated processes replaces by heavy hierarchy. Therefore, a quantitative control, standardized statistical work strengthens, it is no longer tempered by officials close to the ground, knowing well their team and often playing the role of protector. Time presence is no longer considered a sufficient means of control. If the hierarchical organization of large companies has never been effective and if it could simply be revised to increase the responsibility and enthusiasm of employees, competence teams and taking better account of the results of each.
In organic Structure centralization is an important advantage because strategic decisions are taken with full knowledge of the operations center. In addition, it promotes flexibility, but in return it introduces confusion between strategic and operational issues. The structure is very risky because the organization is based on the will of a single person. Similarly it has some other problems that the organic organizations face problems of recruitment, motivation and retention of employees. There is also a problem when the need of taking centralized essential decisions.
Q. Discuss the factors which influence individual behavior at work
Factors which affect Individual’s Behavior
Some of these areas which have emerged and have subsequently become areas of immense and tremendous importance include the different segments in an organisation which are directly or indirectly affected by management, corporate culture, corporate governance and among all the skills and potentials of leadership which are required for the smooth and consistent running of all appropriate organizational operations.
Several studies have also indicated that workers' expectations towards a employment act on various dimensions: job involvement, commitment to employment, commitment to career, organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Although interrelated, these five dimensions we refer to distinct aspects of working life (Aryee & Tan, 1992). These concepts take consideration of the fact that individuals do make a distinction between their jobs, their organization, their profession and work. It is therefore necessary here to further define these different concepts (Mathieu & Zajacm, 1990). If HRM practices should be modified to increase the attraction and employee’s engagement it will improve employees’ performance (Lepak & Snell, 1999).
Q. Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organizations
Different Leadership Styles
A wide variety of approaches and styles are used in exercising leadership skills. Some of them are traditional while others are modern. Let us identify and discuss some of the leadership styles, which are commonly seen in practice and revealed by research studies.
This style of leadership is built on power. The subordinate is often motivated by fear. Under this style, the leader orders his subordinates to do a task and the subordinate are expected to complete it without any questioning. There is very little delegation of authority and the leader does not give explanations for his actions. In the situation where the authoritarian leader functions:
· All Policies are set by the leader
· All the activities are dedicated by the leader and this keeps the subordinates uncertain of future steps
· The subordinates are directed at every step at what to do and how to do
The transformational style of leadership depends upon the charisma of the leader. In this style, the leader encourages their employees and can easily obtain the performance, which is beyond imagination by setting high goals and then inspired their employees to pursue and achieve such goals. Transformational leaders provide a plan for getting the goals and attaining their vision. Actually they provide a big picture to their employees and then the employees relate their individual activities to the work as a whole.
In the supportive Style of leadership the leader seeks psychological support from his subordinates. The relationship between the leader and his subordinates is based on mutual understanding and support.
The leader using this style encourages the subordinates to participate in group activities and decision making. Under such a leader, friendly relations among the members exist. The leader holds his position because he is loyal to the group and is concerned about their interests. There is no threat to motivate the people. The climate in which they operate provides motivation to do their best. A participative leader:
· Permits all members to discuss policy and encourage them to get involved in making necessary decisions
· Permit not only discussion on present activity but also on future activity
· Permits members to define their own job situations as much as possible
Selection of a proper leadership style must be based on the value system of the manager, his confidence in his subordinates, his own leadership inclination, the personality and expectation of the subordinates, group effectiveness, and the type of organization. The participative leadership style minimizes the amount of interpersonal hostility, frustration, aggression and grievances and creates greater group feeling, job satisfaction and morale.
Q. Explain how organizational theory underpins the practice of management
Some organizational theorists interpret organization in terms of principles while others view organization as a system in which people act and interact in accomplishing certain goals. Based on these and other views, several theories have been formulated which explain the structure and functioning of organizations. Then, too, there are several types of organizations in existence: formal and informal; profit and non-profit; service and manufacturing; public and private; and so on (Rousseau, 1997).
Many managers believe that organizational excellence can be achieved through effectively managing corporate cultures. It is sometimes observed that most managers do not know how to manage culture because of their lack of knowledge in monitoring and changing an ailing corporate culture although they realize that corporate culture is critical to corporate success. Basically managing culture involves identifying the existing norms, values and beliefs, comparing them against the desired values, norms and beliefs, and planning and implementing the socialization process systematically.
Q. Evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organizations
The classical approach of management is built on the principles. While the human relation’s theory or Neoclassical theory emphasizes exactly what the classical theory ignored: the human element. The beginning of this school of thought can be traced back to the famous Hawthorne studies at the Hawthorne plant of the western electric company in the United States. The purpose of the human relation’s movement was not to replace the classical school of thought but to re-orient its thinking, from the financial to the human factor. The human relation’s theory draws its backing heavily from the field of social psychology and from other related fields.
Management is making a series of decisions. The whole emphasis is on decision making. This school of thought was initiated in 1940s. It advocates a logical sequence of problem formulation, gathering information and data, constructing mathematical models, exploring tentative solutions, testing the suggested solutions and executing them. Since the emphasis is on quantitative approach, it requires the skills of individuals with mathematical, statistical, engineering, economics and general business background.
The modern management approach is not a single view or theory expressed or formulated by a particular theorist. It has taken different directions and it is still in process of evolving. The contribution to modern management theory comes from the behavioral sciences, operations research, systems science, and contingency or situational theory. No compromise has been reached among these contributors as to what constitutes the complete modern management theory.
Q. Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organizations in periods of change
Impact of Leadership Styles
An effective leader must, above all, understand that motivation is initiated through recognition of mistakes, highlighting strengths and providing the confidence to grow with the company. Undoubtedly, Emotional Intelligence will facilitate the development of leadership and teamwork. An emotionally intelligent leader easily recognized attitudes, feelings and negative emotions that were affecting the enthusiasm and motivation of the group. Quickly in these situations an effective leader finds a way to reverse them, avoiding that affect the commitment to results.
What seems clear until now, is that leadership cannot come just from outside pressure, force, coercion or intimidation, but simply cannot be imposed. It must come from the free membership from the head and heart of the people in response to feel recognized, respected and valued by their leader. Instead of a mechanical reaction to a higher power, leadership is a complex moral relationship based on parameters such as trust, obligation, commitment, emotion, admiration and a shared vision of the good to be achieved.
A leader is someone who would be able to transform reality, in their relationships with others, thanks to the trust of people. Trust is based on three dimensions: technical, emotional and ethical. Following the logic of the trust, as the ethical goods are above the useful and pleasant, it is reasonable to assume that when it shatters confidence in the ethical, the consequences for human relationships would be substantially higher than if there were deterioration in the technical dimensions or psycho-affective trust. In this same vein, doubts arise about the goodness and the truth of the leader's behavior, ethics confidence crumbles and therefore equally true dimension of the common good proposed by researchers (Clinton, 2008). When the leader seeks accession of not respecting the dignity of his followers could not talk about leadership in the strict sense, but rather, handling. When manipulation is perceived leadership is unlikely to last, as this would be an unreal kind of leadership, only apparent, which is based on inequality in the relationship, about the lack of transparency, the lack of intentions twisted not confessed, or the negative consequences that would follow who purport to address.
Q. Compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace
Application of Motivational Theories
Motivation is either intrinsic or extrinsic in nature. Intrinsic motivation originates in factors within a person. People are said to be intrinsically motivated when they engage in an activity for its own sake, out of sheer enjoyment, without expecting tangible payoff for their efforts. Eating a fine meal, listening to music, spending time with friends and working on a hobby are among the activities one might find intrinsically motivating. On the other hand extrinsic motivation originates in factors outside the person. People are said to be extrinsically motivated when they engage in an activity as a means to an end – to win money, grades or recognition; to fulfill obligations; or to avoid punishment (Sprick et al., 1998).
Indeed, one often assumes that motivation is a key to success in his work. Thus, the motivation is designed, by definition, as a initiation of productive behavior. The satisfaction would be found to do the job would persevere and could predict the performance, especially when that satisfaction relates to the intrinsic characteristics of the activity.
Q. Evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for managers
Usefulness of Motivation
Indeed, one often assumes that motivation is a key to success in his work. Thus, the motivation is designed, by definition, as a precursor to involvement in the workplace and the initiation of productive behavior. The satisfaction would be found to do the job would persevere and could predict the performance, especially when that satisfaction relates to the intrinsic characteristics of the activity. Yet despite the importance of this variable in the quality of life of employees (Faragher, Cass & Cooper, 2005), the link between satisfaction and performance is the subject of debate.
The motivation does not depend exclusively on the individual and his needs. It can also depend on the characteristics of the work environment, the nature of employment or management style of superiors and often referred to in this case, extrinsic sources of motivations (not excluding that it may promote self-determined motivation if the environment supports the sense of autonomy and competence). It is one of these theories, the theory of building whose main doctrine is the law of effect (Thorndike, 2010), or the theory of Pending. Reinforcement theory said that the reward obtained leads usually the subsequent behavior, the theory of expectation explains when and why a behavior will occur according to the expectations. While the precepts of the theory of building are still useful, the theory itself has fallen into disuse with the psychologists. The main reason is probably that this theory provides a low understanding of the motivational process itself. It is simply to describe the direct relationship between rewards and behavior. Although these theories are the motivation from different perspectives, they do not necessarily lead to predictions for different behaviors. In addition, some of these theories can be further, such aspects of the theory of expectations with those of the theory of self-efficacy.
Q. Explain the nature of groups and group behavior within organizations
Nature of Groups
An important aspect of better performance or organizations is team building. In teams, employee’s productivity tends to be more uniform. Productivity difference among employees is small because the team exerts pressure towards conformity. Non-cohesive teams do not have this control over employee’s behavior and hence tend to have wider variation in employees productivity.
Teams can be developed by combining two things: a common goal and good communication. These two elements must be present. You can have a group working on a project if they do not communicate, they are NOT a team. Conversely, one can have a group that communicates well, if they do not have the same goal, they are NOT a team either, even if they are named.
Team’s performance is based on their cohesiveness (Shaw, 1981). Members of less cohesive teams are less concerned about the team’s welfare. High cohesiveness is normally considered an attractive feature of the organizations. The greater the amount of contact among the employees and the more time spent together, the more cohesive the organization. Through frequent interactions members get to know one another and become more devoted to the organization (Feldman & Arnold, 1981). Another aspect is personal attraction to the organization, meaning that employees have similar attitudes and values and enjoy being together. Two factors in the context of the organization also influence the cohesiveness of the employees. When the organization is in direct competition with another organization, its cohesiveness increases as it strives to win. Finally, the success and favorable evaluation of the organization by outsiders adds to cohesiveness. When the organization recognizes the success, members feel good and their commitment to the organization will be high.
Q. Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organizations
For the success of the team it is necessary that ideas will be expressed and communicated properly. If the members of the team do not suggest more than one opinion on one subject, it is likely that we fail to think well. Or maybe they really think, but they fear to express their ideas. The organization has to create an environment where the team and those who compose it are not afraid to say something stupid, or wrong. It must also be ensured that disagreement does not represent a threat. In a good and cohesive team:
· Everything is uncovered, nothing is hidden;
· The task is clear and accepted;
· Leadership can change with circumstances.
If the employees of the organization agree on goals, they will be more cohesive. Agreeing on purpose and direction binds the employees of the organization together. Thus in a team:
· The group effort is directed towards a goal
· The group effort can be achieved by coordination
· Authority and responsibility relationship help to achieve coordination (Mowday & Sutton, 1993).
Q. Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organization
Impact of Technology
Each job has its own technology and structure; so the elements of the job are subjected to forces and concentrates outside the boundaries of the formal job description. Technology provides new and innovative ways of communication which not only enhances the communication opportunities to team members which ultimately provides more cohesiveness among team members leads to better performance of the team.