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June 28, 2014

Women in the Japanese Workplace

In the Japanese history, according to the rule of stratification, gender is an imperative issue. The ethnic explanation of gender disparity has diverse between many societal groups and assorted over the period of time. The women could be bequeathed assets in their personal names and cope it by themselves, in the twelfth century. Afterward, according to the feudal regime, the position of women deteriorates. The lower class women sustained to have actually more liberty and much influence as compare to high-class women who lives subject to the male domination doctrine espousal by the government as element of its exertion at social command. In the beginning of industrial revolution period in Japan, young women involved in workshop labor because of suppressive and unhygienic running state of affairs without obtaining  self determination. In the Meiji epoch, industrial revolution and development tapered the power of male partners and male head of the family; however, simultaneously the Meiji Civil System deprived of female lawful privileges and dominated them to the command of family leaders. The lower class female were not as much affected by the cause to be admitted of this tendency, but it slowly distributed and widely even to isolated areas. In two decades of 1930s and 1940s, the government fosters the creation of female's associations, commended high fecundity, and related to motherhood as a jingoistic task to the Japanese Kingdom.


The new definition of the lawful status of females was pronounced by the work establishment, following to the World War II, who integrated an identical privileges article in the constitution of 1947 and the amended 1948’s Civil Code. The commitment to household became unimportant as individual rights were approved. Then in 1946 females are allowed to cast their votes. Further amendments were came into being after war as new centers of education for females were originated.
The major responsibility is that the possession of a permanent job is mandatory is Japan as the society is very work-oriented. The frequent lengthy working hours in Japan is requisite occasionally. The bars, caf├ęs, bistros and analogous places are getting full for jamboree and generally the employees are going out.
People work long hours and working overtime is very common, sometimes even required.  In addition, it is common for workers to go out and socialize after work at bars, restaurants, and similar places.  This can make it very hard for women with duties at home to fulfill all of the responsibilities of a full-time job, and it is part of the reason why there are less women working in Japan than in other industrialized countries.  The conflict between home responsibilities and work not only keeps many married women from working, but affects the job prospects and advancement opportunities of single women as well.  Many employers refrain from promoting young women or putting many resources into training them because they believe that they will get married within a few years and subsequently quit.  As a result, it is very hard for women to advance and gain promotions in the Japanese workplace.
Modification of the Equal Employment Opportunity Law
The amended Equal Employment Opportunity Law obligatory in 1999 make illegal gender inequality in all phase of working lives instigating from classified ads, staffing method, and service until retirement. Inside the rule, clauses to preclude sexual harassment and to put into operation constructive action were introduced, and the shelter of motherhood and holidays in regards of maternity was increased. Adjudication at the in the public domain Women's and Youth Office (presently known as the Equal Employment Office) can be instigated through the demand of one group. Simultaneously, though, rules in the Labor Standards Law that sheltered females’ related requirements were eradicated. The end result, rules administering overtime, leave job, and late-night job carried out by females were eliminated, and at the present the service rules shielding both males and females are deemed inadequate.
Women's service with growing non-fulltime employees
Because of the amendment to the Equal Employment Opportunity Law, the quantity of temporary working females has enhanced in Japan. As stated by a work force investigation, 47.9% of woman employees are in employment as staff, such as time-fixed employees, part-time employees and temporary employees. Among all of these cases, their service agreements are diverse from those of permanent employees. In women non-fulltime employees, most of them are "part-timers in terms only," indicating that they are known as "part-time employees" but as a matter of fact they do their jobs equally or even more lengthy than normal full time hours. As per the government white paper on females’ toil, the quantity of females recently hired as part-time staff in 1999 surpassed the quantity of the freshly hired fulltime women employees.
Several women part-time workers are employed in continuing, imperative work, much similar as permanent / fulltime employees are, but their remunerations are considerably less than the wages paid to women fulltime / permanent employees. The difference in remunerations among women part-time employees and fulltime employees has broadened, and the mean income of the women part-time employee was merely 66.9% of the women fulltime employee's remuneration in 2000. The mean remuneration of male workers changed into an hourly pay is 2,005 yen (almost USD 15.50), whereas the mean hourly pay of women part-time employees is merely 889 yen (approximately USD 6.85), or 44% of the remuneration of male fulltime employees.
Tribulations of the amended Equal Employment Opportunity Law
Employment administration categorization
The main crucial trouble of the latest Equal Employment Opportunity Law is that the regulation does not insist on amputation of gender inequality if the employment administration categorization is diverse. On the word of the guiding principles of the amended Equal Employment Opportunity Law, service administration categorizations comprises of "nature of work, suitability, employment nature, and sort of employment design." For time-restricted job and part-time job, the sort of service and the kind of employment design are varied from those of their full-time corresponding persons, and inequity among time-restricted and fulltime employees is not conditional on abolition. When categorized as an occupation track employee (principally for men) or support-track employee (mostly for women) upon fulltime service, inequity noticed flanked by their administration categorizations is not conditional on abolition according to the new Equal Employment Opportunity Law.

Indirect discrimination
Circuitous inequity was too particularly in the amended regulation. Circuitous inequity is relevant to the circumstances where one gender is barred or underprivileged as a consequence of implementing various principles, despite the fact that unconnected principles are not specific for male and female. Paradigms comprise inequity not in favor of non-fulltime employees, for instance part-time employees, short-term agreement employees, and provisional employees, for which the proportion of female is at the high level. Service inequity on the basis of diverse administration tracks is too measured as indirect discrimination. Several non government organizations and municipal workplace in Japan gives dependent relative benefits and accommodation benefits to the "employee who is the controller of the family," whereas nearly all "controllers of the family" are men employees. Even when females are employed in the similar job or job with the identical feature as male, females are on the whole the unregistered family leader and therefore not entitled for these benefits. Further more, several organizations exploit worker acceptance of relocation, reschedule, extra hours of job, or leave employment as the normal for job liability and maintaining. These prerequisites set females at a drawback as females are usually liable for the looking after of the household and does not acknowledge those prerequisites. This condition can additionally be measured as a type of indirect discrimination. The auxiliary answer by the Diet states that in conditions of indirect discrimination, what is measured inequitable handling will be analyzed. However no actions have been taken on this subject up to now.

Employment assessment method
The amended regulation does not stipulate an employment assessment method to understand "equal pay for the same work." An objective assessment method of one's job has barely been presented in Japan, and the regime has not taken any actions to launch such a system. In an attempt to eradicate inequity and build an equal pay system, it is obligatory for the government of Japan to enthusiastically suggest the preamble of such an assessment method and to take definite actions to encourage the espousal of this method between companies.
Institution of administrative organizations to fix discrimination
Autonomous administrative organizations (to be precise, equal employment opportunity commission) have been instituted in the US and Britain, and these associations can dispense instructions to eradicate gender discrimination when considered to have transpired in the place of work. Though, this sort of organization is yet to be instigated in Japan.
Aim of Equal Treatment Action 2003
As mentioned above, the amended Equal Employment Opportunity Law even now demand change for the better in different manners. Especially, gender differences have broadened as a consequence of the abrupt boost in the quantity of other than fulltime employees, but eradicating this type of inequity is complicated according the present regulation. On the basis of this identification, the "Equal Treatment 2000 Campaign" was instigated by 30 people, comprising pollsters, legal representative, assembly members, and affiliates of female's groups. The aims of this movement were as follows: primary, the Part time Work Law must be amended to obviously demand "equal treatment"; secondary, types of indirect discrimination must be fixed; and lastly, "equal pay for equal job" must be comprehended.
As the promotion lasts more than a year, the quantity of promotion followers raised to 800 persons. On the basis of this attainment, the objective to perform legislation for the same treatment by 2003 has developed stronger, and 2000 promotion was rephrased as "Equal Treatment Action 2003." By collaborating with Assembly members, workers unions, female's group, and working females who do not a member to specific associations, we would be keen on to enlarge this network countrywide in regards to gain equal treatment.
Women Managers:
Although effective management favors no gender but to be an effective manager a woman has to work like a man. Woman managers confront some situations and problem that are unique to their sex. These problems concern her subordinates, her peers and her own bosses.
Males usually resent being held accountable to a woman. In some cases, consciously or unconsciously, male subordinates try to bypass the authority of female boss. On the other hand, many female employees firmly believe that they prefer male managers over females. This attitude should not surprise anyone since male managers have been the only type that existed. As a result, woman who blindly accepts the job of manager- like their male counterpart- resent the presence of a female supervisor. Some female subordinates feel that it lowers their own status to have to take orders from another female.
Females and males have certain responsibilities towards each other in any organization. If goals are to be accomplished with minimum difficulty. Some male managers feel that the woman manager expects special treatment. The male manager should be as supportive or critical of a woman as of man. Regardless of sex, an important managerial characteristic is courtesy, so they both have to accept the change.
The following tables depicts the change of nature of services of women and the hourly pay of part time and full time workes
Table 1 Number of workers on the basis of nature of service
 
Total of men and women
Women
Men
Workers exclusive of board members
49,990,000 (100%)
20,760,000  (100%)
29,230,000  (100%)
Fulltime employees
36,400,000  (72.8%)
10,830,000  (52.2%)
25,570,000(87.5%)
Part time employees / Temporary workers
11,520,000 (23.0%)
8,910,000  (42.9%)
2,610,000(8.9%)
Part time employees
2,080,000 (4.2%)
1,030,000  (5.0%)
1,050,000(3.6%)
Source: Special survey of labor power in February 2001

Table 2 Modify in hourly pay among fulltime and part time employees on gender basis
Year
Women
Men
Fulltime employees
Part time employees
Difference
Fulltime employees
Part-time employees
Difference
1990
989yen
712yen
72.0
1632yen
944yen
57.8
1992
1127yen
809yen
71.8
1812yen
1053yen
58.1
1994
1201yen
848yen
70.6
1915yen
1037yen
54.2
1996
1255yen
870yen
69.3
1976yen
1071yen
54.2
1998  
1295yen
886yen
68.4
2002yen
1040yen
51.9
2000
1329yen
889yen
66.9
2005yen
1026yen
51.2
Source: Salary Structure Basic Statistical Survey by the Ministry of Health and Labor
·         Japanese females get paid 65% of what males income in 2003, which creates one of the biggest disparity in the urbanized world
  • In Japanese workplace, the females possess more or like 9% of the nation’s management jobs and only 0.1% of the board member posts of the major companies in Japan, as 40% of Japanese females in employment,   
  • In organizations with 40%-50% female staff make normal incomes twice rather than those companies where female staff is no more than 10%, stated by The Ministry of Japanese Economy
  • According to the latest information reported by Jiji Press that it is considered  by 64 per cent of participants that few gender discrimination in the Japanese workplace is inevitable
  • As per the latest research about Japanese women in Civil Services, that 70% of female workers had been sexually harassed one or more time, while only 100 sexual harassment cases were filed in Japan in last ten years
  • Japan positions on 9th number followed by the US on the UNHD Index list, which positions countries in their growth level on the basis of GDP per capita, adult literacy rate, life expectancy and education levels. While Japan at 38th number in the UN’s Gender Empowerment Measure list which positions nations on the basis of female in government sectors, the figure of experienced women employees, and the percentage of take home income among male and female in a given nation (Women in current Japanese Society)
Conclusion:
Prejudice is basically an internal phenomenon that entails the act of prejudging, or the making of judgments based on insufficient evidence. According to most studies, prejudice toward other human beings is not an inborn but a learned response.  In short, we learn from others to use the mental shortcut of prejudice.  Because ethical standards are not codified, some problems always occur. An ethical dilemma arises in situations when each alternative choice or behavior is undesirable because of potentially negative ethical consequences. Right or wrong cannot be clearly identified. As mainstream Japanese have learned more about the similarities, as well as the differences, between male and female workers many of their fears and uncertainties have become allayed.  Women must continue to prepare themselves for the opportunities that are continually opening up for them.
Although prejudice and discrimination have not been fully eradicated from the workplace, much progress has been made in recent decades. Not only have women generally been satisfactory workers, but through increased exposure to women, other employees have also found that much of their prejudice had been based upon ignorance and a lack of understanding.

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