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September 9, 2014

Organizational Change Essay

As this is a broad and ambiguous concept, organizational change is difficult to define. It has several definitions. As such, the management literature of change has several facets representing a conceptual wealth in management. It is in fact, different kinds of changes related to different types of organizations. Indeed, Chandler (1962) listed different types of growth strategies in conjunction with different forms of organization. These strategies are determined by the allocations of resources, the determination of long-term and short-term goals and adoption choices of action (planning). The lack of a comprehensive definition of organizational change can be explained by the fact that in the same context, the change is not designed to same way in two different organizations. If it is not easy to agree on a definition of change, at least, a consensus was reached on the organizations’ instability. Indeed, all advocates of change argue that firms are never stable and they are in a situation of no change. As a living organism, it adapts or trying to adapt continuously to its environment. Devoid of this permanent mechanism, a organization cannot survive. The idea is that organizations must adjust according to the current changes. In this vein, some authors stress that change often results evolutionary forces or events on which the organization has no power in general (Herscovitch & Meyer, 2003). Thus, the change takes place when the organization strives to achieve a purpose which is necessary for its success, for example, improved operational performance.
There are different approaches of organizational change like neo-institutional approach, environmental approach, cultural configuration approach etc. The choice of these approaches can be explained by the fact that these approaches complement each other and can bypass the modernization movement as a whole (Armenakis & Harris, 2002). In other words, the modernization as strategic change involves the change of culture, structure, strategies, etc., and it is correlated with the environmental change. Moreover, the neo-institutional approach and that of ecology are both focus on the environmental pressure on the organization.
                                                         The operational framework
Since the 80s, the modernization of the public administration plays an important role in government policies in several countries. If consensus was made about the modernization of the public administration, the debate on implementation process is not yet closed. In Canada, the phenomenon of modernization was considered as means to address the failure of the management of public administration; but now the opinion has changed. The goal of modernization is to improve the performance of public administration companies.
The traditional view is that in public administration companies the control is not impaired at the outset, but it becomes in a cycle. In other words, it is not the government control which leads to better performance, but rather the modes associated with leadership and modern management practices that meet environmental requirements. In fact, the performance of state institutions depends more on management teams who run them. However, the public administration suffers from two decades of ineffective actions.
This inefficiency is due to lack of vision, incompetence, irresponsibility and rigidity of some leaders of public administration. Thus, all attempts to change faced more resistance from that the top of the base. With the shift change at the head of some departments or state agencies, the performance would necessarily fluctuate. The idea is not just to change the leadership but rather to change the way we see the practical and technical management, organizational structure etc. by borrowing successful modern methods from private sector.
Currently, in order to balance performance and government policy, public administration is able to rethink its objectives in the light of new logics introduced by modernization. However, the success of the latter depends on the process of its inception (design and conduct). In fact, many authors argue that the way to deal with change could be behind the success or failure of the organization. The goal is to derive an integrated model of strategic change management that will serve as a reference model. It is a dynamic model which will be adjusted for many public administration companies (Anderson & Anderson, 2001).
Administrative reforms
Administrative reforms indicate the adoption of essential instruments by the administration for the economic and social development of the country. It is set up of services which are the basis for the population in the areas of education, health social services, among others, and build basic infrastructure throughout the territory to facilitate the occupation. However, the aim for administrative reform attempts of change is to improve performance (effectiveness and efficiency) and the image of the government vis-à-vis its citizens. What interests us in this respect is the modernization component insofar as it constitutes a radical change in time. In principle, it is the implementation of the new management philosophy and for the first time adoption of customer-based approach in the public sector.
Modernization is a major change, a modification of long-term goals to the extent it affects several organizational domains. For our part, we aim first with the modernization, implementation of new modes, new practices and management techniques borrowed from private sector for the development of customer focus and improved performance, without compromising the political objectives of the state, then we aim coordination between departments within the same ministry and among all departments to encourage communication and promote the integrated management of human resources. Finally, we aim, through this process of modernization, creativity in the administration and management of the initiative at all levels of hierarchy. The goal is to serve the citizens.
Change Management
We aim in this concept the process of planned change which summarized in three main phases:
1.      Diagnosis of the situation and action planning;
2.      The execution of the action;
3.      Evaluation of the action or process of change (results) (Levesque, Prochaska & Prochaska, 1999)
It is noted that organizational change occurs at all levels and involves individuals and groups from the first to the last step of the hierarchy.
The design change
This is the first phase of change that relates to the diagnosis situation, the pilot study and detailed planning. As its name suggests, this is the time when we will implement the action plan that is drawn in the design phase. The degree of success will vary depending on the circumstances. Indeed, the implementation is of self-evident importance. Clearly this was no guarantee that the implementation work would be done properly or skillfully.
It is in the interest of the public administration that performance launched the movement of modernization and innovative management. In fact, the performance is conceived as the result of the success of the modernization program. In this respect, it seems obvious to define what is meant by performance.
This concept encompasses both the effectiveness and efficiency. Efficiency equals productivity performance, economy and all ratios results / outcomes and resource / work organization. The effectiveness equal relevance of objectives, level of achievement of objectives, usefulness and satisfaction of the medium and long term customer needs.
 Hambrick and Mason (1984) divided performance into four components that are profitability, changes in profitability, growth and survival. There are two types of performance measured by one economic productivity ratios and other measured by financial covenants. With the exception of the survival component, it is a purely economic perspective where performance is measured. This one has attracted the attention of many researchers. Indeed, people emphasize on the financial aspect to measure organizational performance because it is linked to the profitability of the company. It assesses if the company reaches its objective, if management is geared towards meeting this objective, if the capital is placed and if the company is financially sound.
However, there are other factors to be taken into account when defining performance, as the goals set by the organization, the social impact of mission of the organization, the acquisition of new methods and techniques of management make the organization more flexible, open and facilitator. Organization reputation, collective effort, the trust, the culture of cooperation and solidarity, humanitarian management, self-assessment, individual learning, etc. are all elements indicating the performance without the logic of the balance sheet or by shareholders' equity. This is what we call performance not measured. There is to note that although we try to quantify the qualitative many individual and social behaviors are beyond the logic of calculation.
In addition, some authors speak of strategic performance identifies the strategic choices made by the organization, the value of an organization and its future. The idea is to develop a form of evaluation that integrates the performance elements related to important variables neglected by the measurement of economic performance. Emphasis was placed on quality of product or service rendered and leadership.
The performance of the public sector
Performance can be understood as the realization by someone’s goals, objectives, duties and responsibility to distinguish its potential, its ability, his knowledge, his ability and his ability. Some authors relate the performance of the public sector to strengthen the values ​​of the state by strengthening its relations with citizens, in particular, the improvement of the quality of service. In fact, the service citizens are at the heart of the mission of the State. Some people connect the effectiveness of performance management but it is not only related to four skill areas namely: intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, the intellectual abilities and skills expertise, but also the need of achievement, ambition, energy, tenacity, initiative, to taste to achieve a mission (as opposed to the taste of the power narcissistic pleasure) honesty and integrity and self-confidence (which includes a kind of emotional balance)as important. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of managers, conducting person occupying privileged places within administration directly affects the performance. We can add that the emergence of new trends in thinking and innovative lines of action have a growing influence on the performance of organizational power as the new public management that makes modernizing a large factor in improving performance.
Case Study: Stanley Morgan Australia
To cope with the constraints and expectations of citizens in the new economic and technological requirements, Stanley Morgan is aware that it is time to manage company’s affairs in an innovative way. The connection between the crisis of governance, administrative reform and globalization brings the organization, Stanley Morgan to a point where it considered that change is necessary because the era of globalization has opened new avenues of research and it becomes the part of the ordinary landscape of the economic life cycle. Morgan Stanley believed that the environmental pressure pushes the company to change and this change is associated with a performance higher than the gradual and incremental change.
Design change under the theme of "doing more with less "began with the diagnosis of the general situation in which the organization currently existed in relation to its environment. It was, in fact, define problems to identify customers and enumerate the objectives of the new system before moving to its development. The purpose is not only to solve problems and facilitate procedures, but also to choose a new system to meet the higher needs of its customers. Indeed, this new system gives customers greater control, better service and less frustration and delays. In addition, it ensures better performance and increase profits while reducing the number of staff and expenditure.
The management of Stanley Morgan knows that the change requires a collective effort, involving all organizational aspects and whose implementation is spread over a longer period. This is a larger scale change up to the challenge goals or organizational structures. Such organizational change improves the performance of the sustainable management. This is done in stages through three approaches:
1.      A new management logic in the context of reorganization strategies (methods and practices, computerization, strategy and decentralization, etc.). This refers to the change in strategy and technology change;
2.      A new logic of human resource management in the context of restructuring strategies (skills development, HRM, redefinition of responsibilities, participative management, self-evaluation, monitoring etc.). This refers to the change in structure;
3.      A new political logic in the context of reorientation strategies(redefining the role of the state, new rules and procedures, reduction of deficit etc.). This refers to the change of culture (Laudon & Laudon, 2006).
Based on the diagnostic phase, the development has appealed to staff and management has worked closely with the customers. Stanley Morgan now treats everyone at the same level. Leadership is widespread throughout the organization and it is continuously changing and evolving. Leaders are not there to be managers or supervisors but are there to advise employees of consequences of actions. It gives employees responsibility for different tasks and people were empowered to perform their duties. The structure allows an employee to grow within the company by developing interpersonal relationships, gives self-commitment, responsibilities, leadership and discipline. (Waddell, Cummings, Worley, 2011)
The persons who are working for the different leaders must know that he or she is not just working for the leader but for the whole team as well and this was becoming a problem.  Additionally, this company has a clear chain of command, and the workers knew who their leaders were and they knew who to respond to each day. However, in this case, because the workers themselves had decided what they needed to work on, they set their own goals in which the problem became that the only person they responded to is the other workers or themselves.
Stanley provides training to help employees with leadership development and establish cooperative education programs. The organizational structure gives associates the right to be free with their working process. It gives more bureaucracy that allows employees to be a lot more productive. Employees don’t have to go around to different departments or authorities when it comes to making different purchases that will help them with their job descriptions.
The policy of the organization has a firm position, which is based on non-discriminatory standards of the workforce hiring practices regardless of the fact that whether they are heterosexuals or homosexuals. The company believes that all employees will be given the same benefits as the other employees. (Waddell, Cummings, Worley, 2011)  
The company is not hiring people to just fill the empty position in the company, but they are also focusing on the flexibility and the unique environment of the company that will ensure the strengths of the new workers.  New employees coming into the organization may find it very difficult to focus at first because they have no particular area to work in where they need to concentrate. This company gives employees the opportunity to become their own boss.
The company believes that further efforts will continue and the environment, management and structure of the company will keep changing in order to control changes in the future. Indeed, the company continues to work in close collaboration with a forum for users to control the system and make improvements and new technologies. Future plans include the use of distance technology in the registration system houses prefabricated.
In conclusion, the introduction of new management style, systems review information and the application of modern information technology has led to a transformation in the way to the working of the company. We attribute this success to the active participation of staff and customers. This helped bring significant improvements in the services offered to customers, taken the responsibility and the availability of accurate and updated.

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